To what extent has increased tourism and globalisation affected the local people in Kenya and their culture. – Key Ideas – Sustainable development – The building of environmentally damaging infrastructure, and coral bleaching due to tourism. + Introduction of eco-friendly camping in the game reserve with tents and locally sourced food. -Managing the environment to ensure I’s available for future generations -Economic development (Increasing urbanisation and bigger income due to tourism based employment specifically Mombasa in Kenya. The Maasai Mara tribe The Maasai tribe have lived on the lands now known as the Maasai Mara game eserve for generations. Their culture, customs, and way of life remained very much unspoiled until the increase of tourism and global communication from the nineteenth century through to the twentieth. The creation of the game reserve and safari in Kenya is now a well desirable tourist attraction attracting millions of people to stay on the grounds and going on tours to see the wildlife in their natural environment.
Tourists also are attracted by the opportunity to meet the Maasai tribe but because of this it is evident that the Maasai culture and traditional customs have been damaged severely. In the creation of the game reserve, major tourist corporations who have developed the reserve were forced to move the Maasai tribe, their cattle, family and possessions out of their traditional land and onto the borderlines of the reserve. The newly built tourist facilities sometimes employ locals including residents of the Maasai tribe but pay a small fraction of what overseas employees would earn.
This shows that major companies feel no remorse, and will continue to exploit the local people whilst taking their homeland and tampering with the environment and their way of life purely for profit. This can have extremely negative effects upon the local community. If members of the Maasai tribe were educated and trained to work within the reserve, possible benefits of that could be the multiplier effect, as money would be spent within the local community rather than economic leakage where money is sent back to MEDC’s.
Education of the maasai tribe would also teach them the importance of the species and ecosystem in sub- Saharan Africa, such as the negative effects of poaching and hunting animals for their skin for decoration, and for profit and the effects of intensive farming on the land eg: Desertification. Although education may have a positive e effect within the local environment, it is fair to say that education of the maasai specifically from the west would have a damaging effect on their culture, as their method and way of life has been the same for hundreds of years.
Food instead of being produced by the masaai tribe which would offer an opportunity for employment is instead shipped from overseas MEDC’s. packaging is then thrown away or dumped on the borderlines of the reserve close to the maasai tribe. Groups of tourists often visit the Maasai tribe, the tribe’s traditional clothing which efore was worn at all times, is now only put on for show. Traditional dances are also preformed which were originally exclusively for special ceremonies such as marriage are used to get tips from the visiting tourists.
Originally, the Maasai tribe’s main source of profit was the hearding of cattle. Cattle hearding was a fundamental part of Masai life as they were food, tradable, and Dowries ( A gift to the wife’s father after marriage). The game reserve has restricted the movement and quantity of cattle hearding for the Maasai tribe as it interfered with the safari trail routes, and wild life movement patterns. The majority of cattle hearders have now found more practical ways of making money such as selling souvenirs, and crafted goods to the tourists.
The hunting of lions which was a traditional ceremony to show the Tribes strength has also been banned. Tourism on the Kenyan Coast (Mombasa) Other unique areas have also been affected negatively by the impacts of tourism. Coral reefs are some of the most diverse ecosystems in the world, housing tens of thousands of marine species, about one-third of all marine fish species live part of their lives on coral reefs, so it goes without saying that Coral reefs are a very mportant part of Kenyan economy for both tourism and the fishing industry.
Kenya has 26 miles of Coral Reef along the southern coast. Tourists are given the opportunity to stay in five star luxury hotels by the sea, and glass floored boat rides to the reef where Tourists can dive and swim in the reefs. However, this is extremely damaging to the environment itself and could potentially wipe out tourism for this area. The majority of the people who provide tours for tourists are local people with little or no education in sustainably managing this environment.
When the anchor rops on the coral or it is trodden on, the piece of coral goes white and dies resulting in a dull white rock which is no longer inhabited by a diverse range of marine life. Coral take thousands of years to grow back and is an extremely unique and crucial to many species of aquatic life. The acceleration of Coral bleaching has left species at risk along with little or no opportunities for this type of tourism in the future. The local people also take pieces of coral to sell the tourists as souvenirs, although it is illegal. Tourism in this area has also upset the balance between the ethnic groups within this area.
Along the Kenyan coast many Muslims live alongside Christians with unique Islamic infrastructure. All the traditional building clash with the high rise hotels which are becoming increasingly common. The western style revealing clothing also clashes with the traditional Islamic dressing eg. Hijab, Burka. Tourism and concentration of bars and clubs along the Kenyan coast have increased the amount of drug addiction and usage for the locals. And prostitution and sex tourism as Local women sell themselves for a low price for the tourists. Tourism, is it not all bad?
Although the decrease of traditional values, environmental problems, and social roblems have followed with the increase in tourism, it’s evident that tourism have improved the lives of many people economically and socially as it gives an insight into their culture and provides bigger profit and a range of facilities which both tourists and locals can use. Without tourism the Kenyan economy would plummet as it’s the main source of income for the country. The Maasai tribe can now make profit relatively care free without worrying about the health of their livestock and the quality of their yield.
The growth of tourism has made Kenya more switched on along with neighbouring African countries. Better global communication and better economy due to the multiplier effect has increased the availability for basic needs such as healthcare, food, and education along with new technologies. Globalisation has also triggered the increase in urbanisation and urban development as people who originally relied on subsistence farming now move to the city for push factors like better work opportunities, housing, and a better way of life.
Tourism has brought profits which have given Kenya better availability to technology, trade links, and travel routes around the world. Globalisation in Kenya Globalisation is the process by which the world is becoming increasingly interconnected as a result of massively increased trade and cultural exchange. Globalisation has increased the production of goods and services. The biggest companies are no longer national firms but multinational companies with subsidiaries in many countries. Globalisation has also Increased technology and communication.
There are a few reasons why Kenya has not benefited from globalisation, while countries who have been equally as poor have flourished with it. Countries like Taiwan were in equal peril 50 years ago but have since embraced lobalisation and democracy. One in three Kenyans are in poverty and 50% work on land as labourers as the European Union has seemed to have almost completely shut out African exports. No property rights exist for farmers and other labourers and therefore they have no right to expand and build on their land.
If they cannot gain ownership of the land they work on then it is very hard for them to retrieve any reek any of the rewards. If Kenya were to allow the same laws that are in effect within already globalised countries and lower the restrictions, then farmers could expand and the Kenyan economy could grow. An example of somewhere that has been held back by the restrictions that exist within Kenya is Kibera, a shanty town located on the outskirts of Nairobi. There is a population of around one million with many entrepreneurs who have been starved of success.
With no government help like loans and the need to purchase expensive trade licenses it is no wonder that 50% of Kenyans trade on the black market. A regular trade license can cost a Kenyan half a year’s wages, 11 procedures and 68 days to process. Some businesses have felt the effects of globalisation but it has had limited success. The second hand clothes arket has been exposed to globalisation and has also enjoyed success. Unfortunately, the government has now began to increase taxes on these, which has worried locals as the second hand clothes are some families only source of clothing.
The import duties in effect from African government are keeping globalisation at bay by threatening the few successful businesses. The possible benefits that could be gained by Kenya can be seen by their hugely successful and ever growing flower industry. Extremely high tariffs exist on almost all Kenyan agricultural products except flowers and some vegetables. The European Union has lowered export tariffs on flowers and Africa is now the largest flower exporter in the world. However, there are worries that if these export tariffs increase, then this thriving industry would be destroyed.
In conclusion, it is clear that Africa has not benefited from globalisation because of the heavy restrictions that exist within the continent and the high export tariffs put on African exports from the European Union and other trade unions. Globalisation therefore has had limited success, this can also be seen in other countries such like Taiwan and regions like northern South America. However, when looking at Africa it shows that the world is too marginalised because materials and power is not distributed evenly.
It is calculated that if Africa would open its doors to globalisation then it would earn E450 million a year in exports, this being roughly around fourteen times what it gains in the form of aid, this would help the local people catastrophically with high economic growth, higher employment thus resulting in a better standard of living. Possible Solutions -Policies on major tourist industries managing the environment responsibly, more recycling, more locally sourced food, and local employment.
Employment schemes to help employ local people such as the Masai tribe within the game reserve and hotels. -Education of local people in Kenya to help preserve and respect the local environment and sustainable alternatives. -Create policies on Glass boat tours so that tourists and tour guides can only view the reef from the boat, stepping on, or dropping anchor on the Coral is restricted. -Increased repercussions on anyone who defies the ban of harvesting coral for souvenirs. -more patrols and crackdown on drug usage and prostitution on Mombasa and other popular tourist resorts.