If the focus were to be adjusted to those deeds and desires – things like food, shelter, water, entertainment, medical care, and education quickly come to mind. Even those needs and desires which are intangible like emotional support, love, encouragement, protection, someone to vent to, or even the opportunity for an individual to express themselves, are precious commodities that are often taken for granted by many human beings at some point or another.
There is, however, population of human beings in the world, who – through a variety of tragic, inhumane, and grossly illegal circumstances – find themselves deprived of all of these things. They are denied respect. They are punished for being victims. They are beaten, starved, raped, mutilated, and sometimes completely euthanized and robbed of their very human essence. In the worst of circumstances, all that is left behind is the shell of a human being, or one that is so badly damaged that they are not truly able to live the life they pray to have back.
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In the best of circumstances, that human being bears the crippling burden of memories so traumatic, that they may still not ever be able truly have life as they once had. These twenty-seven million individuals that are being spoken of, are the men, omen, and children who are abducted, coerced, tricked, threatened, and forced into the ever-black, evil world of human trafficking and sex-trade.
Having become a simple commodity, the highest paying deviant can pay an exorbitant fee and shamelessly force a young boy or girl (who, on average are 11-13 and 12-14 years old, respectively, when they are incorporated into trafficking) to submit to and/or perform heinous sexual acts. Aside from trafficking of a sexual nature, there is the trafficking of people for labor. Typically, adults will be recruited in much higher proportion for this purpose than will children. Likewise, there is a higher proportion of men accounted for in labor than sexual trafficking.
Although the sex trade exists and occurs in many places around the world, there are certain characteristics and features, which if are descriptive of a certain country or region, necessarily increases the likelihood of human trafficking – as well as the temptation and willingness of paying consumers to seek said services and entirely non-existent in others. Rather, the degree to which a particular country or region can be characterized by these conditions, can inversely or directly dictate the ole and volume of trafficking it engages in (Map 1, peg. 1). It is a cycle that began countless years ago, and has since evolved into the second-largest form of criminal enterprise in the world – with the illegal drug-trade being number one. One could argue that it is still worse than the drug trade, given its indescribable infractions against human rights. Just as with so many other things, money plays arguably the most important role in the development of trafficking networks, as well as the participation in them.
The amount of money tied up in the human trafficking industry totals Just shy of thirty- our billion dollars. About sixteen billion of which, is associated with industrial countries. That statistic certainly conflicts with the theory of poverty being entirely correlative with the grip that human trafficking holds on a particular country, but also enforces the cycle; where those in poverty revert to trafficking as a desperate meaner of provision for themselves, those who have money will pay absurd prices for the opportunity to indulge in their dark desires.
The trafficker continues to provide the service, which allows the consumer to purchase the sexual experience they desire, ND finally, will provide increasing access to better resources, larger networks, and even more sex-slaves to offer for the next consumer. Hence, the relationship is perpetuated. In many situations, and many countries, the abject poverty of those who tend to embrace trafficking is a common component and result of the institutions and structure of the country and it’s government – whether it be political oppression or unrest, the lack of economic stability, absence of social reform and equality, etc.
In numerous instances, there are civil wars and internal armed conflicts. In others, omen are marginalia and often seen as inferior to men. When they find themselves with no opportunities, it is not uncommon for them to turn to prostitution. Unfortunately, prostitution is one of the most prominent industries from which traffickers and their cohorts will find their victims. They are desperate, poor, often addicted to drugs, and have virtually no form of resources with which to avoid their fate.
Another major factor, is when there is insufficient access to helpful information and preventative education. It is statistically accepted that countries that lack in hose departments almost always have a higher percentage of participation in sexual industries, by individuals of younger ages, and for longer periods of time. In America, we are taught very early about sexuality, gender identity, the dangers of reckless sexual behavior, and so on. Many of those who end up being trafficked do not have these opportunities.
They are easily taken advantage of, and once they have been “conditioned” by their captors and traffickers, lack the information and knowledge of how to ever find their way back out. They are almost brainwashed into a woefully infused state of hyper-sexuality, where it becomes a fearful duty, and nothing at all off pleasure. Interestingly of note, a part of the manipulation of these vulnerable individuals is realized in the fact that women are convicted of charges relating to trafficking (Graph 2, peg. 1). There is a very psychological nature to how traffickers go about procuring their victims; simple sociology has found that both men and women tend to be a bit more open and trusting of females in spontaneous encounters. This is especially true when the males and females are young (often not even, or barely already, teen-aged). So, women are highly incorporated into this stage of the “picking” process, in order to inspire a false sense of increased security between the victim and a stranger.
In places where social programs are poorly funded, less prevalent, or simply absent for the most part, people looking to make transactions with traffickers and have their sexual encounter tend to appear in higher volumes and in more instances. Africa, for example, lacks these social protections for citizens and workers alike, because a majority of the continent resides in extreme poverty. There are no authorities, laws, or protective social measures or outlets effective or able enough to prevent trafficking networks from developing.
Furthermore, should there be any of the aforementioned measures in place, they are often counter-productive when the “if you cannot beat them, Join them” mentality wins out; corruption, bribery, violence, and extortion often extinguish what little flicker of hope would have otherwise provided protection to potential victims. In reality, it would be virtually impossible for trafficking networks to operate or prosper without the cooperation of public officials, he authorities, and certain political groups.
Given that the employment atmosphere in such destitute countries provides virtually no resource or protection either, it is a natural magnet for cheap labor. In many countries and amongst the groups of people that suffer poor wages, very little financial stability, and no real professional opportunities, workers are easily taken advantage of and strong-armed by employers, individuals with money, and those with the resources adequate for forcing them into these types of modern slavery – roughly eight-hundred thousand people globally per year.
Migrants and people who have been internally displaced are more at risk to be trafficked, in that they lack local, personal connections, are not easily tracked or unidentified, and can therefore are more easily exploited. Thanks to ever-increasing rates of people traversing borders and a rapidly growing global population, traffickers continue to seek potential victims in several global industries that have traditionally – and continue to be – lucrative for their purposes. (Graph 3, peg. 12).
By the same token, an increasing volume of international border crossing actually infinite smugglers more so than it does the individuals who are seeking countries or areas with stronger economies and improved opportunities. Tightening border security in many more prosperous countries actually serves to stratify those without the meaner or resources to legally cross a border – potential victims – from those who do have the resources to procure legal crossing of a border – traffickers and their associates within the network.
As a result, these victims are effectively “trapped” within the very environments that are most accessible to criminals who aim to come into so that they may exploit that very fact. Yet another self-perpetuating relationship of human trafficking that further exploits those actually needing protection. As important as it is to address the internal issues of a region or country that conditions under which those looking to pay for deviant sexual experiences, will seek out the service traffickers are attempting to provide.
In today’s highly globalizes economy, and because of how much sex is glorified in the media, the demand for cheaply acquired workers for sex industries has been increasing very rapidly. Sexual encounters and relations are either unrealistically glamorous, or deviously warped. Endless access to images of societies “beautiful” people engaging in sexual activities portrays an encounters which – more than often – do not reflect the idea of sex and the relations involved in intimacy that generally exists amongst a majority of the “normal” population.
The media plays off of this discrepancy, as does the virtually effortless access to a plethora of pornography – ranging from quite conservative, to some that most would consider pretty disturbing. As a product of this warped media culture, increasing numbers of individuals begin drifting closer, step by step, to the IANAL transgression of purchasing an experience with trafficked sex-slaves. There is no liability, or penalty for virtually anything that may occur in their sexual encounter this way.
They are able to do what they want, to whichever victim they please, with no fear of repercussions for even the dirtiest and evilest of behavior. As mentioned initially, although poverty and corruption are significant gateways to the formation of trafficking enterprises, human trafficking is not at all exclusive to Europe, poor countries, or areas with extremely exploitative social conditions. The United States deals with a significant number of trafficking incidents on a year basis – where figures range anywhere from one-hundred to three-hundred thousand children being drawn into or involved in sex trafficking networks.
This also is not exclusive to small towns as opposed to big cities, the North opposed to the South, or areas of poverty, but not areas of affluence. The reality is a bi-variable process; victims are traditionally exploited in those areas with higher rates of poverty, but are exploited again when they are placed in affluent areas where people can afford to pay. As a corollary point, human trafficking laws vary greatly from one state to another, and have only been in existence for less than a couple of decades. This has substantial influence on which areas experience trafficking, as well as the volume of which is does.
Wyoming, Arkansas, Montana, and South Dakota are known as the “Faltering Four. ” They are classified as “Tier 4” states, being the worst classification possible. The best being “Tier 1 The Faltering Four are states with ripe conditions for traffickers to prosper (Map 4, peg. 12). In 2000, the Federal Government passed the Trafficking Victims Protection Act, isolation that made it formally illegal to “recruit, harbor, transport, provide or obtain a person under the age of 18 years old for the purpose of a commercial sex act” (CNN. Mom). Very controversially, a short time later in 2006, the U. S. Department of Justice reported that approximately sixteen-hundred children were arrested on charges of both prostitution, and “commercialese vice. ” The T. V. P. A, however, dictated that children that are counterclaiming or selling sex within the United States were classified as human trafficking victims; instead, after such a traumatic experience, they were classified as criminals.
It is not only domestic sex trafficking accounted for in these statistics, as there is a substantial volume of children who are smuggled into the United States as well. They from Russia, certain Latin American countries, poor European countries (especially Eastern regions) are transported to the North America (U. S and Canada), industrial European countries (especially Western regions), Japan, parts of South-Eastern Asia, Currently, the only truly formal authoritative body and legislation responsible for combating human trafficking around the world is the United Nations. In 2000, the U.
N adopted the “Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children,” and was formally enacted on December 25th of 2003. This legally recognizes human trafficking as criminal activity, governed in theory and practice under the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (NOD) (Nod. Org). There are three specific purposes of the protocol detailed by the NOD, being the prevention and combating of trafficking in persons, to protect and assist the victims of trafficking, and to promote cooperation among States Parties in order to meet those objectives.
By providing the first operational definition of what trafficking in persons is, it has been successful in fostering tangible improvements in international law, requiring States who have ratified it to make all practices comprising and relating to human trafficking illegal and criminal activity. The Institute for Trafficked, Exploited and Missing Persons endorses several specific realms of action in which particular improvements and changes should be made in order to effectively fight the practice of human trafficking and sexual slavery. The first step is focusing on the elimination of severe poverty.
By enabling the destitute around the world to gain greater protections and heightened control over their lives through accessible and mandatory primary and secondary education, the provision of greater social protection from poverty. Second, is the necessity of strengthening punishments and legal sanctions on those who engage trafficking and the sexual exploitation of vulnerable people. Though there are a number of laws and existing sanctions addressing this issue, greater levels of assistance and resources must be contributed to authorities and prosecutors.
It must be easier to put together laid cases against offenders, and victims are in greater need of public assistance, such as shelters, better health care, increased protective measures, and the granting of residency status. As a supplement to the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, an annual report is compiled by the U. S. State Department, entitled “Trafficking in Persons Report. ” The data in the report is generated through a number of different sources and via multiple methods, including U.
S. Embassies, Government officials of particular countries, non-governmental and international organizations, reports published prior, tips received through e-mail, and actual research trips to any region. The trips cover all bases, from government locations, to public areas, rural environments, and everything in between. The report addresses and presents information The cycle of human trafficking is, indeed, complex. It is also self-sustaining in ways. (Graph 5, peg. 13).
The human trafficking industry still continues to grow and evolve, leaving proponents of human rights and world peace to adapt and re- evaluate their methods. It is evident throughout history – and to this day – that advantage of that opportunity. Through the steps knowledgeably detailed above, and the presence of political action and the allotment of resources, human trafficking can be halted, slowed, stopped, and then eventually the victims of it rehabilitated and integrated back into a safer world. Strengthening preventive measures are equally as imperative in the fight against human trafficking.
More high quality training programs for officials must become available, along with persistent efforts to augment the publics awareness to the issue. Currently, both efforts by the media to campaign against trafficking, along with raring systems such as the Amber Alert have shown great potential and made solid progress. On that note, finding a way to decrease corruption is a truly significant necessity, given that it is one of the factors most responsible for the survival and continuation of trafficking overall.