I also believed that we should take advantage f technology available today; this technology could be used to facilitate the teaching of essential skills through structured programs. My philosophy has changed over the past several months as a result of the information I have been exposed to thus far in the doctorate program at Arkansas State University. While I believe there are essential skills that are important for students to learn, I think students can benefit greatly from participative learning in which partnership and collaboration are stressed over individuality and competition.
For example, when a student is involved in making decisions about how learning will aka place, that student will be more likely to take ownership in the learning. I am not advocating that schools let students determine exactly what they are to learn or when they will learn it. I believe that students need to be introduced to specific materials, but letting the student have a voice in how the learning is to take place may make both the teacher and the learner more successful. I believe technology is a tool that can be used to enhance student learning, and I believe this learning can take place in the absence of competition and isolation.
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For example, there are now ways to communicate extensively with fellow students while taking an online course. For some, the online course setting encourages participation too much larger degree than does the traditional classroom. For instance, a student may be uneasy about asking a question in front of a class while asking it online is not classroom may now have the opportunity to learn. Therefore, I believe that technology can enhance instruction and should be seen as a helpful tool rather than a necessary evil in education.
In this paper, I will attempt to speak to the following issues as well as include y philosophies regarding them. These issues are the impact of the industrial revolution and the effect Deeming had on organizational leadership, the idea of stewardship and partnership, the concept of emotional leadership, how leaders deal with change, and how technology affects diffusion of information throughout systems. The Industrial Revolution and Deeming Today’s view of effective leadership has changed significantly since the Industrial Revolution.
This is true, in part, because of the thoughts made popular by Deeming and the effects he had on modern leadership ideologies. The Industrial Revolution echoed the objective of obtaining a greater profit. The set up of mass production was seen as the solution that would allow companies to earn a greater profit. The assembly line was an example of efficiency advocated by Frederic Taylor. Frederic Taylor was the top-level consultant in the U. S. With regard to mass production who developed four principles of scientific management (Owens, 1998).
These principles were to eliminate guesswork through scientific measurements, to make worker selection and training scientific, to utilize the concept of division of susceptibility and to use management to set objectives. While scientific management may have worked for our society in the past, I believe that in today’s society it is ultimately less effective than management through stewardship and partnership. One of the leaders to facilitate the adoption and facilitation of stewardship through participative management was W. Edwards Deeming (Owens, 1998).
Deeming worked with Japanese management introducing ideas such as power-sharing, a shared mission, conflict management, and growth-enhancing management. Through these innovations he supported the idea of participative management and empowerment. After seeing how Deeming had turned Japanese industry around, leaders from the Ford Company asked Deeming to work with them (Owens, 1998). Ford’s leaders were surprised when Deeming noted the importance of the culture and vision of the organization and that the production of low-quality products was not the fault of the workers but the responsibility of the managers.
Demise’s ideas came to be known as Top Quality Management (TTS) and were adopted by several American companies (Owens, 1998). These adoptions oft led to wide acceptance of Demise’s ideas. I believe Demise’s ideas are very important to organizations as is the fact that participative management. Finally, I believe that participative management and the empowerment of the worker bears important implications to the educational organization. Through implementation and participation of those ideas it is possible to get everyone in the organization involved to the point that they will take ownership in the institution.
Stewardship and Partnership The ideas of stewardship and partnership have become widely accepted as effective meaner of leading in today’s organizations. These ideas support the premise that everyone in the organization should have a voice in the running of that organization. According to Block (1993), we can either choose partnership or patriarchy. It has been traditional in our organizations to operate on the basis of patriarchy. This meaner that employees operate under the guidance of managers who make the decisions and impose them on the workers.
While this may seem to be a situation that workers would reject because of a lack of opportunity, many are hesitant to give up what they perceive as safety. This perception of safety originates n our long history of having someone to “take care of us”. In other words, when there is a manager telling us what to do and when to do it we become accustomed to being guided in every aspect of our function within the organization. We are able to release some of the responsibility that is involved in the decisions related to the task.
For example, when one is told to do something he or she believes will not work, the task may be completed anyway with the intention of letting the blame fall onto the manager. I believe it is this lack of ownership manifested through a sense of attachment that has led to the demise of many organizations. If our organizations operate based on the idea of partnership, decisions are based on what is good for the company and everyone involved is given a voice in those decisions. When we choose partnership we are given power in return for a promise (Block, 1993).
We promise to operate for the good of the institution and, in return, we are given equal power with others in the organization to make decisions to promote the institution. Furthermore, I believe that through the ideas of partnership, managers and workers an gain a true sense of ownership which may lead to the willingness of all parties to accept greater responsibility for the actions of the organizations. Finally, when operating under the philosophy of partnership, the voice that everyone in the organization is given promotes ownership in that organization.
This ownership not only gives people the authority to do what they believe is right for the organization but may foster greater creativity eventually yielding higher productivity. Emotional Leadership The concept of emotional leadership is one that is often ignored when interpolating the important aspects of leadership. I believe that leadership of an organization is leadership of emotions. According to Friedman (1999), there are several major components of leadership including self-differentiation, staying triangles, and persistence in the face of sabotage.
Self-differentiation involves knowing what you believe and pursuing those beliefs despite what others think. It also involves the maintenance of one’s own function in the organization. This meaner that one should evaluate whether he or she is overreacting because when one is overcorrection in any relationship another is probably underclothing. Staying connected while remaining non-reactive meaner that one understands the vision of the organization and maintains a focus on its vision while, at the same time, remaining detached enough that he or she is not overly anxious about the processes of the institution.
Having a non-anxious presence involves having a calming effect on the organization by remaining calm despite the situation present. A leader who remains non-anxious can affect those following simply by retaining a calming air about him or her. Managing triangles includes being a part off relationship without attempting to change the relationship of others in the triangle. The objective is maintaining one’s positions without getting involved in the disputes of others.
Finally, the persistence in the face of sabotage deals with the leader’s ability to realize that resistance will come when any leader takes the initiative in an organization. The leader should hold fast to his or her plans despite attempted sabotage by others and may even realize that the existence of conflict indicates that he or she is probably acting appropriately. While I believe all these ideas Friedman (1999) spoke of are important in being an effective leader, it is often very difficult to remain self-differentiated with regard to all these beliefs.
However, I believe a leader can begin working on himself or herself in these areas while learning to incorporate them all into a leadership style. The knowledge of what self-differentiation involves can also be used to better understand the processes and the actions of others within the organization. How Leaders Deal with Change I believe it is important how leaders deal with change in organizations and hat they understand the processes of planned change so that they can have a greater impact on change in the organization.
Different individuals define change in a variety of different ways Arrow, 1999). First, developmental change is doing something the same way but doing it better. Second, transitional change is finding a new way to do the same thing. Third, transformational change is creating a new process to do something different. Because organizations have seen both developmental and transitional change function ineffectively, I believe transformational change is the best way to facilitate lasting change in an organization. I believe it is important that a leader understands the processes of planned change.
According to Owens (1998), there are three orientations helpful in planning and managing change. They are empirical-rational strategies, power-coercive strategies, and normative-eradicative strategies. Empirical-rational changes involve between researchers and practitioners. Power-coercive strategies include the use of sanctions to obtain compliance. Normative-eradicative change focuses on deliberately shifting the culture of the organization toward desired change by encouraging those working in the organization to participate in the change process.
I believe that both empirical-rational and normative eradicative strategies are better alternatives to power-coercive strategies because of the ownership facilitated by involving workers in the change process. Finally, I believe that when coercion is used to promote change, conflict will arise because of the lack of participation in the decisions that are made when initiating change. Technology and Diffusion I believe that technology is not only a tool that can enhance instruction but that, with t, we may have the capacity to affect the rate at which diffusion of information occurs throughout systems and to other systems.
For example, Ward (2000) stated that technology will affect the process of change as we know it. This indicates that leaders should understand that technology can be used as a tool to enhance both the educational process and the process of leadership. This can be seen in such innovations as the use of the Internet to facilitate instruction, the use of communication tools to enhance more efficient transfer of information, and the use of multimedia to improve the presentation of ideas.
Technology may also expedite the diffusion of new innovations throughout the school system. The traditional meaner of diffusing new ideas in education is neither planned nor structured. According to Owens (1998) it typically takes about fifteen years for innovation to spread to about three percent of school systems and another twenty years for the change to be diffused into an area the size of the average state. I believe this slow-paced change has contributed to the attitude that nothing ever gets done with regard to education.
I also believe that technology can be used to make he diffusion of innovation much more expedient. For example, an institution could use the Internet to make innovative ideas available to an almost unlimited number of individuals and organizations virtually immediately. However, with the use of this tool, leaders must take greater responsibility in being certain that planned change is appropriate before allowing it to be diffused throughout the system. Conclusion Different types of people may react differently to different types of leadership styles.
A leader can probably never make everyone in the institution happy at the same mime. However, I believe that it is important that leaders realize and anticipate the differences in people. It can be helpful to understand that there are different types of people who each come from different perspectives on how things should be at work and in life in general. According to Beck and Cowan (1996), Graves said that people progress through a series of levels as they grow throughout life. Each level remain a part of the person.
I believe that Grave’s theory may be used to promote a greater understanding of philosophical differences and where these differences stem from. While I do not advocate labeling individuals within an organization, I may find it useful to use this theory as a framework to understand the differences in people I encounter. While scientific management may have worked for our society in the past, I believe that in today’s society it is ultimately less effective than management through partnership and stewardship.
One of the leaders to facilitate the adoption and facilitation of stewardship through participative management was W. Edwards Deeming (Owens, 1998) who introduced ideas such as power-sharing, a shared mission, conflict management, and growth-enhancing management. Through these innovations he supported the idea of participative management and empowerment. The ideas of partnership and stewardship, empowering everyone in the organization with a voice in the running of that organization, have become widely accepted as effective meaner of leading in today’s organizations.
The voice that everyone in the organization is given promotes ownership in that organization giving people the authority to do what they believe is right for the organization while fostering greater creativity that may eventually yield higher productivity. I believe that leadership of an organization is leadership of emotions. Friedman (1999) cited several major components of leadership including self-differentiation, staying connected while remaining non-reactive, having a non-anxious presence, managing triangles, and persistence in the face of sabotage.
I believe these ideas are important in being an effective leader, though it is often very difficult to remain self-differentiated. However, I believe a leader can begin working on himself or herself in these areas while learning to incorporate them all into a leadership style. I believe it is important how leaders deal with change in organizations and that they understand the processes of planned change so that they can have a greater impact on change in the organization.
I believe transformational change is the best way to facilitate lasting change in an organization because organizations have so often seen both developmental and transitional change function ineffectively. Strategies of planned change include empirical-rational strategies, power-coercive strategies, and normative-eradicative strategies. I believe that both empirical-rational and normative eradicative strategies are better alternatives to power-coercive strategies cause of the ownership facilitated by allowing workers to participate in the change process involved in those strategies.
I believe that technology is not only a tool that can enhance instruction but that we may be able to affect the rate at which diffusion of information occurs through its use. Furthermore, leaders should understand that technology can be used as a tool to enhance both the educational process and the process of leadership leaders must take greater responsibility in being certain that planned change is appropriate before allowing its diffusion throughout the system. References Beck, D. E. Cowan, C. C. Spiral Dynamics: Mastering Values, Leadership, and Change.