Study: Leishmaniasis

Study: Leishmaniasis

Study: Leishmaniasis Leishmaniasis Name of the disease understudy The World Health Organization (WHO) website reports that Leishmaniasis was discovered actually many hundreds of years ago. Leishmaniasis’ signs and symptoms were described in the writings of the Inca period in the 15th and 16th centuries. According to the WHO, “One of the first and most important clinical descriptions was made in 1756 by Alexander Russell following an examination of a Turkish patient. (XX) Brief description of the disease Leishmaniasis is caused by parasitic protozoa belonging to the taxonomic genus eishmania that is transported by the female sand fly. Sand flies in of them self do not contain this parasitic protozoa, they must be infected by a contaminated host, the sand fly is only the vector. When a sand fly “bites” an infected host to feed, such as rodents, the sand fly will be infected by the taxonomic genus leishmania as they feed on the infected host.

As this single cell protozoa is ingested and subsequently digested, the protozoans begin to grow. As this growing occurs the sand fly then has to vomit to expel the lager of the the promastigote that have attached. As the sand fly eeds again it attempts to clear out the promastigotes clogging its intestines and esophagus through vomiting and expels promastigotes, which contain the taxonomic genus leishmania, into the bite wound of the feeding host. FemaleSand Flies Two common types of the taxonomic genus leishmania seen below. XXX) (XXX) Leishmaniasis can be broken down into the following three main categories: Cutaneous 0 Mucosal 0 Visceral The cutaneous form of leishmaniasis produces whelps that lead to dermal ulcers on exposed areas of the skin. The ulcers are similar to decubitus ulcers seen in bed idden patients. This form can difficult to diagnose since the patient may not remember how the whelp occurred since it may take weeks or months for symptom to show. This can lead the clinician to believe that the dermal ulcers were caused by arachnoids. This is why a very though history must be obtained from the clinician.

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The mucosal form of leishmaniasis destroys the mucosal membranes that are affected such as the oropharynx, nasopharynx and surrounding tissues. The visceral form of leishmaniasis, also called kala-azar or black fever, causes infection in either he liver, spleen or both and can also migrate into the bone marrow. This then can lead to anemia. The signs and symptoms that are produced by visceral leishmaniasis are fever/chills, loss of appetite, emaciation, malaise, swelling of the spleen and or liver. This type of leishmaniasis is nearly always fatal if left untreated. Xl) The cutaneous and mucaosal forms of leishmaniasis are not deadly but extremely disfiguring unless untreated and then the issue becomes that of a secondary infection or metastasizing to visceral leishmaniasis. Although these two conditions isfguring and can lead to social out casting which can lead to more of a psychological impact such as severe depression and anxiety. Comparison between cutaneous form of leishmaniasis (left) and brown recluse spider bite (right) (X4)(X5) Take note of these areas Progressed from above Mucosal form of leishmaniasis at severe stage.

Mucosal form of leishmaniasis at severe stage, progressed from above photographs. Profile view of a teenage boy suffering from visceral leishmaniasis. The boy exhibits splenomegaly, distended abdomen and severe muscle wasting. WHO/TDR/Kuzoe X7 Enlarged spleen and liver in an autopsy of an infant dying of visceral leishmaniasis. WHO,TDR/ElHassan (X7) National prevalence / statistics Currently in the United States there have only been rare cases of the cutaneous form of leishmaniasis that have been reported from Texas, but no cases of visceral leishmaniasis are known to have been acquired in the U.

S. Although this stated, medical providers need to keep in mind that with people traveling abroad for business and pleasure in the civilian community and the US soldiers, sailors, airman nd DOD workers who have deployed to Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom (an excess of 400,000 personnel) have the potential to have at least been exposed to leishmaniasis of any form.

Populations at risk for the disease Anyone living in areas that have a high social economical stress such as that in underdeveloped countries or areas that are casualties of natural disasters that produce poor hygienic conditions in a warm region creates a prime opportunity for the sand fly to live. In essence anywhere in the world that there is a warm re primarily those individuals, who spend time outdoors between dusk to dawn and who live in Texas, Oklahoma, India, Bangladesh, Sudan, Brazil, Nepal, Southwest Asia (Middle East) are at a higher incidence of infection of leishmaniasis. X2) Works Cited (XX) http://www. who. int/leishmaniasis/en/ 20 April 2010 http://books. google. com/books? +Leishmaniasis&source=bl&ots=orc06npCnH&sig=8CSBZiLcKc2gd7a4eZisEV05iUo&hl= en&ei=LV70S4fkK4eY8QTOqqXDDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved= OCAoQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=Catagories%200f%20Leishmaniasis&f=false Xl http://www. neworldhealth. org/leishmaniasis X2 http://www. stanford. edu/class/humbiol 53/1mmuneEvasion/images/ XXX http://images. google. com/imgres? imgurl=http://www. eyeofscience. om/eosy english/gallery/templates/galeriepics/medizin/leishshow/ol . ]pg&imgrefurl=http:// www. eyeofscience. com/eosyenglish/gallery/medizin/ bsp5. html&usg=_bK08aKB9my2f-sMqqaJ- ngl VI XXXX http://edis. ifas. ufl. edu/LyraEDISServlet? command=getlmageDetail&image_soid=FlGURE %201&document soid=lN705&document version=47019 http://human-infections. suitel 01 x5 http://thefuntimesguide. om/images/blogs/brown_recluse_spider_bite_Day9. Jpg x4 http://images. google. com/imgres? imgurl=http://www. hull. ac. k/chemistry/images/ handsore. Jpg&imgrefurl=http://www. hull. ac. uk/chemistry/phprint21. php%3Freferrer %3Dhttp://www. hull. ac. uk//chemistry/newsinDetail. php%26title d=3YdNOpqKplevsM:&tbnh=86&tbnw=118&pre?„images%3Fq%3Dsand%2Bfly X6 http://images. google. com/imgres? imgurl=http://www. scielo. br/img/revistas/abd/ v81 n3/e08f2. Jpg&imgrefurl=http://www. scielo. br/scielo. php%3Fpid _TenM:&tbnh=121 &tbnw=119&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmucosal%2Bleishmaniasis ttp://images. google. com/imgres? imgurl=http://pathmicro. ed. sc. edu/parasitology/ leil 4. ] pg&imgrefurl=http://pathmicro. med. sc. edu/parasitology/blood- art=3&um=1 &itbs=l &tbnid=Ezc6nix4_tL6AM:&tbnh=135&tbnw=91 &pre?„images http://www. dpd. cdc. gov/DPDx/HTML/Leishmaniasis. htm http://homepages. uel. ac. uk/d. p. humber/akhter/trans. htm http://www. cdc. gov/ncidod/dpd/parasites/leishmania/default. htm http://www. cdc. gov/ncidod/dpd/parasites/leishmania/factsht_leishmania. htm#get_us http://www. who. int/leishmaniasis/leishmaniasis_maps/en/index. html

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