Rizal

Rizal

After his sojourn in Europe, he decided to return to his homeland. There were many reasons why he wanted to return home like (1): the bad situations that were happening in Calamba because of agrarian trouble; (2) the cataract treatment of his mother; (3) to practice his medical profession and to be with his family; (4) want to know what happened to Leonor Rivera. His education, work and writings of Rizal including his associations with professors, scholars and scientist made him famous in Europe. He may wanted to see the effect of the ” Noli Me Tangere” in first hand to his people and the abusive Spanish authorities.

He had a delightful trip from Europe to Manila. It was also a happy homecoming in Calamba, Laguna . However, the family of Rizal knew that they were plotting to be killed because of his writing in “Noli Me Tangere” . He was able to live in peace with the protection of his family in Calamba and was able to practice his medical profession where he first treated the eyes of his mother However, in six months of sojourn in Calamba he failed to see his sweetheart Leonor Rivera. The return of Rizal was no longer peaceful when the controversial novel reached to the hands of the Spanish authorities and the Dominican friars.

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Those who were able to read Just like the liberal-minded Governor General Emilio Terrero found out that it was not advocating subversive ideas. However, the Archbishop of Manila, the rector and professors of University of Santo Tomas reported that the novel was heretical, impious and scandalous in the religious order. I must have known that Rizal was not like by the Dominican Friars even when he studied medicine in the same university. I was further reported that it was anti-patriotic, subversive of public order, injurious to the government of Spain and its function in the Philippine Islands in the political order.

There were other critics of Rizal such as Augustinian, F. Jose Rodriguez, including the Senate of Spanish Cortes who occupied various high positions in the Philippines. The governor general knew there was nothing wrong with the novel, what he did was to give a bodyguard to Rizal where he assigned the young Spanish lieutenant, Don Jose Taviel de Andrade. They then became close friend as they had the same line of interest as educated and cultured young men. As a result of the hatred of the Dominican friars because of the publication of Noli in Europe, the government investigation of the friar estate in the agrarian trouble of

Calamba found out that the hacienda of the Dominican Order comprised not only the lands around Calamba, but also the town of Calamba. Furthermore, the government investigation was all favorable outcome for the Dominican Order in the rentals paid by tenants, no contributions made by the hacienda owners in the different celebrations, including education and agriculture, high rates were charged to the tenants. It was also reported to Governor General Terrero for the possible This article provides us an interesting story about the life of Rizal when he returned to his hometown.

He may live in peace with the protection of his family and friends including the governor general , however, the hatred of the Spanish friars totally changed the situation that the government actions were against all to those who are near to Rizal because of his novel that exposes the truth about the exploitation of the Filipinos at that time. reasons why he wanted to return home like:(l) the bad situations that were happening in Calamba because of agrarian trouble;(2) the cataract treatment of his mother and to practice his medical profession; to be with his family; and (3) wanted to know what happened to Leonor Rivera.

It also provides us an interesting story about the life of Rizal when he returned to his hometown. He may live in peace with the protection of his family and friends The love life of Rizal had been fully committed to Leonor Rivera that was the reason why many beautiful women never felt the meaning of true love. When his love fell by the women of Europe he usually travelled and get away Just to reserve the love to Leonor. He wrote many letters to her, however, his loving sweetheart never received the letters.

The Leonor’s mother didn’t like Rizal although she knew that her daughter was eeply in-love and never broke her promise as her sweetheart. So her mother conspired and bride the post office clerks would give them the letters by either Leonor or Rizal. Although , Rizal was in Europe his sweetheart knew that Jose will never break his promised to write her. For last time Rizal wrote a letter for Leonor and Mr. Rivera on March 30,1884 but this was intercepted in Dagupan office ( Craig, 1927) “Today I visited your family (relatives in Madrid).

I do not know whether it is my patriotism or what but this family is very dear to me. The children are charming. One of the children, Jos?©, talked until I had a good laugh. The oldest girl has been in Concordia (College) and knows many girls there. [Then he writes in French] The girls of my own country please me greatly, but I have found one back home who has charmed and who makes me dream. Whenever I am overcome with pensive melancholy I unfold all my past before my vision. I am going to be like that traveller who goes down the road smelling flowers; he passes without touching them for fear they may prove unreal…

My days pass swiftly and I see that I am becoming old for of those with tranquil hearts, and hopes for the future; yet I have done nothing that ould not meet with your approval. My conscience does not trouble me, for I have deprived myself of many pleasures. I believe my heart has not lost any of its power to love, only the one I love most is not here. ” After the successful operation of removing the cataracts of his mother. Rizal would visit Leonor in Dagupan as he had known by his friends that the letters were intercepted by the mother of Leonor. When Rizal asked permission to his parents to go to Dagupan they advised him not to go anymore.

Rizal could go in Dagupan even there was no approval to his parents but in this period the high respect and love of lders were followed as part of the Philippine customs: Rizal confided his sister Soledad about his sacrifice for the love and respect of their parents Just like Leonor who followed her mother to marry Mr Kipling, This was the opinion of Rizal why he followed the advised of his parents when talked about love affairs : ( Craig, 1927) I can tell you (without trying to offer myself as a model for you), that in my love affairs I have always behaved myself honourably, because I would have felt humiliated if I had behaved myself in any other manner. I have disapproved of all young people ho behaved in a secretive manner and hid themselves in the dark. l urge you earnestly to be considerate of the gray hairs of our parents, who are already very old and ought to enjoy the glory of their last days. There is a certain selfishness in parental love, it is true, but it is a selfishness that is the child of an excess of love. Parents do not wish to see their children unhappy. I am a man, and when I came back to our country I had more years than you have, more experience, more mature Judgment, and above all, more obligations” The life of Rizal gives a good value about our custom to respect of elders and parents . We have to consider the decision of our parents for they will no longer live long in this world. Even do we are already mature Judging our action sometimes we give them a chance our parents and elders to show our love to them.

In what he confided to sister Soledad about his strong desire to proceed to Pangasinan but he thought about how his parents nurtured him : ( Craig, 1927) ” You know well, as all know, that it was my duty to have gone, and I could have gone to Pangasinan, since I was engaged, and since this had been one of my greatest longings for many years. Nevertheless, in spite of this desire which I had nurtured for o long and which I even yet cherish, the opposition of our parents was enough for me to sacrifice all my sentiments. I longed to go to Bacolor, but they were opposed, so I surrendered and obeyed. And nevertheless from my disobedience there would have resulted not the least dishonour.

Leonor has done the same as l, although she was able to go and desired to go to Manila with her father to visit her cousins. One word of opposition from him was enough; she did not insist upon going; and frankly, if she had insisted and I had known about it, I surely would not have gone to see her. Vigilant spies carried Noli Me Tangere to the government, and the government did a thorough Job. The rector of Santo Tomas reported to the Archbishop: “In returning the copy you sent us, we have noted with a red pencil the statements against Spain, the Government and its representatives in these Islands. With a blue or black pencil other statements, impious, heretical, or scandalous, or objectionable for other reasons.

All the narrative, absolutely all taken together and in its details, the important and unimportant incidents, are against doctrine, against the church, gainst the religious orders, and against the institutions, civil, military, social and political, which the Government of Spain has implanted in these islands. Noli Me Tangere of J. Rizal, printed in Berlin, if circulated in the Philippines, would cause the gravest dangers to faith and morals, would lessen or kill the love of these natives for Spain, and stir up the passions of the inhabitants of the country, and cause sad days for the mother country”. (Retana,1907 :129) These were the interesting observations and comments in the book Noli Me Tangere: (Epistolario Rizalino, Volume 2: 2) 1 . Who does not know Father Damaso?

Ah, I have met him! … And although in your brilliant impersonation of him in the novel you have him wearing the garb of a dirty Franciscan, always coarse, always tyrannical, always corrupt, I have met him and studied him in real life in the Philippines, at times in the white habit of the white habit of the Augustinian, sometimes as a Franciscan, as you have presented him, and sometimes in the bare feet and tunic of a Recollect… 2. Your Capitan Tiago is inimitable, combining as he does the characters of two or three of our countrymen. 3. Who does not find those who personify this disgraceful type, a worthy cousin to Ate Isabel. I have met them… 4.

The old man Tasio brings to my memory two or three famous countrymen of ours, those who have fallen during the night, among them the apostate Quaker, Francisco Rodriguez, and I remember others whom you and I know whom we cannot yet name. Father 5. Salvi is the truest representative of the much-vaunted Filipino missionary. How many persons who pretend to know our country will claim that the noble and unfortunate Elias is a pure ideal? … This type among us is well known to you and to me, because e have thought and felt and suffered with them.. 6. The ‘good servant’ Don Primitivo and the ‘wise’ Sibyia, picture perfectly the ancient Thomases, Josephs, and Laterans full of distinctions and Latin, which is useless for reason as well as for life. 7.

How many children of my infancy, infatuated with this supposed erudition still are living! . These are really perfect types of the social life of the Archipelago, I do not know how to praise Ibarra enough. His life and misfortunes are so like my own humble history! I do not know whether anyone will dare to dispute the absolute truthfulness of this ictim of despotism and colonial corruption, but if this should happen, I could point out to him historical facts… It is even better than a photograph friars would persecute him because of false conspiracies. They had to implicate the enlightened Filipino to be possibly exiled , imprisoned or even shot as the result of the publication of the Noli Me Tangere.

The Spaniards including the friars owned the country not the Filipinos. They had abuse their powers never lived with high level of idealism. The catholic church remained the dominant force in governance to the State. Even women were exploited for the sacrificial lamb to the friars. Retana (1907) says the principal conclusions of Noli Me Tangere are: (1) The enlightened liberal Filipino cannot live in the Philippines because he and the friars are uncongenial. He is persecuted in every way, false conspiracies, are invented to implicate him, and then he is imprisoned, exiled, or shot. (2) The country is not for us, but for Spaniards, especially the friars. bandits than it captures. 3) The Civil Guard is so abusive that it makes more (4) The Spaniards in the Philippines have no high ideals, but many of them have egenerated into ruffians. (5) The Catholic religion has been employed as an instrument of domination. Filipinos are condemned to perpetual ignorance. (6) The pure (7) The woman cannot marry a Spaniard, but gives herself to the friar if her parents oblige her to do so to protect themselves. (8) With the present bad government the Filipinos cannot remain united with Spain, and with all courtesy we ask for the rights we deserve. (9) The chief cause of insurrection is desperation. When a man loses all he has, he fights After five months, the effect of the Noli Me Tangere was tremendous that the

Life of Rizal was no longer peaceful when the controversial novel reached to the hands of the Dominican friars. The Governor General Emilio Terrero reached the report about the Noli Me Tangere, he then read the book as he found out that it was not advocating seditious ideas against the government. The Governor General was secretly pleased about the exposure of the injustice, vanity and greed of the Friars. However, the Archbishop of Manila, the rector and professors of University of Santo Tomas reported that the novel was heretical, impious and scandalous in the religious order. In order to ecure the life of Rizal, the governor general finally gave him a bodyguard named Lieutenant Jose Taviel de Andrade.

The Spanish Lieutenant who became the friend As a result of the hatred of the Dominican friars because of the publication of Noli in Europe, the government investigation of the friar estate in the agrarian trouble of tenants. There were the principal points as results of the investigation by the Governor General: (Retana,1907) 1 . The Hacienda of the Dominicans comprises the entire town of Calamba. 2. The profit of the owners has gone up, but that of the tenants has gone down for ver three years, because the tenants are being charged for the forest land, which brings them nothing, but which costs them much to clear; so that the rental has risen in a few years from P 45 to P 900. If there are two crops of cane, the farmer pays for each crop and also for the land; and if they build a hut, they have to pay rental on that land. 3.

The town lots where houses or store houses are built have their rental increased every time the official or servant of the hacienda measures them, or when the owners of the buildings improve the lots, or put up stone or wooden buildings instead of bamboo. Even the cockpit had its rental raised from P 16 to P 100, though it has not increased an inch in size. 4. Those planting seed plots which have but 3 or 4 cavans of seed, are forced to pay as though they had 9 to 12 or 14 cavans, otherwise the plots are declared vacant and handed over to others The report of the Governor General reflected the abuses of the landlords including the Dominican friars about the agrarian condition in Calamba , Laguna.

It was also obvious in the report about the observation on the exploitation of the poor people particularly on the exorbitant interests of their loans, and rent of the farm ands: (Retana,1907) “The hacienda pays nothing for the improvement of the town, nor for the fiestas, nor for education, nor for promoting agriculture, nor for public decorations. The products of the tenants diminish in spite of their constant labor, as is proven by the large number of ruined farmers who got in debt and were dispossessed of their belongings. After these people had cleared the land with immense labor they were dispossessed for little or no reason. Sometimes the landlords forced the farmers to buy expensive machinery at outrageous prices, and hen made their successors shoulder the debt after they were dispossessed. When the farmers could not pay, they were charged enormous interest, and if the payment was not made the following year, the rate was increased until land, work, and capital were all lost.

Locusts and a decrease in the price of sugar made a payment of the canon impossible, so the landlords reduced it fifteen percent for some, while for others they raised the canon higher than ever. For want of capital the town is exhausted; they cannot plant all the land they clear each year, and if they plant, they annot gain any benefit, so there is each year less and less enthusiasm and activity. complained about the agrarian problem so the Governor general kept silent and failed to Justice to the Filipino people. Rizalfailed to get the support of the Governor General as he wrote : (Retana,1907) “The government was afraid to fight for the truth and abandoned the unfortunate town.

The document was read, signed by all the leading people; the author signed it with his full name; women, landowners, Chinese, servants, laborers signed it, the whole town signed it, because we had the courage of our convictions and because we elieved in the sincerity of the government and in its zeal for the country’s welfare. ” La Solidaridad, May 31, 1889, Retana:142. ) Rizal’s daring exposure of the Calamba oppression and injustice had gone farther than the Governor General had expected. The Spanish way was not to apply a drastic cure to such wrongs, but to cover them up, for fear of an uprising of the people, and even more for fear of the tremendous power which the friars wielded. Terrero decided that Rizal had done more than enough; so he advised him that for his own good it would be better for him to leave the country at once. (Russell and Rodriguez, 1923:14)

Jesse
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