Psych Final Exam Study Guide-Part 4 BY and03008 STRESS (chapter 12) 1 What are Corticosteroids and what is their function? Stress hormone that activates the body and prepares us to respond to stressful circumstance 2 What is the Hassles Scale (Folkman & Lazarus)? With what outcomes is it associated? The Hassles Scale measures how stressful events, ranging from small annoyances to major daily pressures, impact our adjustment. 3 Who is Hans Selye? What is the General Adaptation Syndrome and what happens at each stage?
What is the Hypothalamus- Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) Axis? Hans Selye is a Canadian physician who ignited the field of modern-day stress research. His genius was to recognize a connection between the stress response of animals, including stomach ulcers and increases in the size of the adrenal gland, which produces stress hormones. General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) stress response pattern proposed by Hans Selye that consists of 3 stages: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion.
Alarm: excitation of the autonomic nervous system, the discharge of the stress hormone adrenaline, and physical symptoms of nxiety, Resistance: adapts to the stressor and finds ways to cope with it, Exhaustion: our resistance may ultimately break down, causing our levels of activation to bottom out. The results can range from damage to an organ system, to depression and anxiety, to a breakdown in the immune system.
Hypothalamus-pituitary-Adrenal (HPA): the hypothalamus (H) and the pituitary gland (P) orchestrate the adrenals glands (A) release of another stress hormone, cortisol, which floods a person’s energy, while their hippocampus retrieves terrifying images 4 What is the Fight-or Flight esponse? Who first described this response? Physical and psychological reaction that mobilizes people and animals to either defend themselves (fght) or escape (flight) a threatening situation. First described by Walter Cannon in 1915 5 What is a Type A personality? What is a Type B personality? Which traits are associated with coronary heart disease?
Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) damage to the heart from the complete or partial blockage of the arteries that provide oxygen to the heart. Type A Personality- personality type that describes people who are competitive, driven, ostile, and ambitious. Type B Personality-A temperament characterized by moderate ambition and drive, accommodating attitude, cooperativeness, focus on quality over quantity and, in general, an easy going approach to life SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY (lectures, discussion section and chapter 13) 1 What is the Fundamental Attribution Error? Tendency to overestimate the impact of dispositional influences on other peoples behaviors 2 ?
What is the difference between persuasion and compliance. 3 What is the “foot-in-the-door” technique? What is the “door-in-the- face” technique? What is “lowballing? “Foot-in-the-door” technique- persuasive technique involving making a small request before making a bigger one. “door-in-the- face” technique- persuasive technique involving making an unreasonably large request before making the small request we’re hoping to have granted. Low-ball technique- persuasive technique in which the seller of a product starts by quoting all agreed to purchase the product 4 What is social facilitation?
Social facilitation- enhancement of performance brought about by the presence of others 5 How did Asch study conformity? Describe his findings. What variables influence whether or not people conform? 6 What are obedience and conformity? What is the difference between them? Obedience is adherence to instructions from those of higher authority Conformity the tendency of people to alter their behavior as a result of group pressure 7 How did Milgram study obedience? Describe his findings. What factors affect obedience? What percentage of participants administered at least some shocks? What percentage showed complete compliance?
What is an authoritarian personality? 8 Why are situations and groups powerful? 9 What is deindividuation? What causes deindividuation? Deindividualization is the tendency of people to engage in uncharacteristic behavior when they are stripped of their usual identities 10 What is social loafing? How can situations be structured to reduce social loafing ? social loafing is a phenomenon where by individuals become less productive in groups 11 What is prejudice? What its components? Prejudice- the drawing of negative conclusions about a person, group of people, or situation prior to evaluating the evidence 12 What characterizes modern racism? versive racism? What is the role of language? 3 What is in-group bias and out-group homogeneity? In-group bias- tendency to favor individuals within our group over those from outside our group Out-group homogeneity- tendency to view all individuals outside our group as highly similar 14 What are cognitive dissonance, dissonance reduction and self-justification? Cognitive dissonance- unpleasant mental experience of tension resulting from 2 conflicting thoughts or beliefs 15 What is prejudice? What is discrimination?
What is a stereotype? What is the Minimal Intergroup Paradigm? Discrimination- negative behavior toward members of out-groups Stereotype- a elief, positive or negative, about the characteristics of member of a group that is applied generally to most members of the group 16 What is an attitude? A belief that includes an emotional component 17 What is an attribution? What is an internal versus an external attribution? Attribution is the process of assigning causes to behavior 18 What is social comparison theory?
Social Comparison Theory- theory that we seek to evaluate our abilities and beliefs by comparing them with those of others 19 Define ‘groupthink and describe its symptoms and impact on decision making. What is the best treatment for groupthink? Groupthink- emphasis on group unanimity at the expense of critical thinking 20 Describe the group polarization process. Group Polarization- tendency of group discussion to strengthen the dominant positions held by individual group members PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS (From Liltenfeld, Chapter 15) 1 What is the demonic model of abnormal behavior?
What is the family resemblance view of mental disorder? The medical model? Explain each of the most commonly used criteria of abnormality 2 What is the DSM-5 and what is recorded on each of its five diagnostic axes? What are the symptoms of Generalized Anxiety Disorder? Phobia? Panic Disorder? Agoraphobia? PTSD? What are the symptoms of Obsessive- Compulsive Disorder? 4 What is the difference between an obsession and a obsessive-compulsive disorder? 5 What are the characteristics of different mood disorders? How does bipolar disorder differ from unipolar depression? Describe major explanations for depression and how life events can interact with characteristics of the individual to produce depression symptoms. 7 Identify common myths and misconceptions about suicide. 8 What is a personality disorder? How do the personality disorders differ from abnormal conditions? Describe the antisocial personality disorder (also called psychopathic) and discuss its etiology. The borderline personality disorder? 9 What are the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia? What is a delusion? What is a hallucination? 10 What are brain abnormalities that people with schizophrenia might have?
What is the role of dopamine in schizophrenia? 11 What is the frequency of schizophrenia in the general population? What are the odds of developing schizophrenia if your identical twin has schizophrenia? What do these percentages suggest about the genetic basis of schizophrenia? What is the diathesis- stress model? 12 What are the symptoms of autism spectrum disorder? What is asperger’s syndrome? TREATMENT(from Lilienfeld, chapter 16) 1 What is the difference between a clinical psychologist and a psychiatrist? A clinical social worker and a clinical psychologist? What are the characteristics of an effective therapist? 2 What is psychotherapy?
Who is the “father” of psychoanalysis? Explain the beliefs that form the core of psychodynamic therapies. What is the goal of sychoanalysis? 3 In psychoanalysis, what are free association, dream analysis, interpretation, resistance and transference? 4 What is humanistic therapy? Who was Carl Rogers? How does humanistic therapy differ from psychoanalysis? What is Person-centered therapy and what are the three conditions of Person-centered Therapy: unconditional positive regard, empathy and genuineness? 5 What are the advantages of group methods? 6 Describe the characteristics of behavior therapy and different behavioral approaches.
What assumptions underlie behavioral approaches to treatment? What re the assumptions of cognitive-behavioral therapies? 7 What are systematic desensitization and exposure therapy? What is Flooding and how does it differ from exposure therapy? What is virtual reality exposure therapy? For what conditions are these treatments useful? What is aversion therapy? What is a token economy? 8 Who is Aaron Beck? What are the assumptions underlying cognitive behavioral therapies? Who is Albert Ellis? What are the ABCs of Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy? What are the dirty dozen? With what kinds of disorders is CBT most effective?
What are the hird wave therapies? What therapeutic components contribute to treatment success. 9 What is meta-analysis? What has meta-analysis found about the value of therapy? What common factors underlie diverse treatments? 10 What are empirically supported treatments (EST) for depression, anxiety disorders and obesity? 11 What is Psychopharmacotherapy? What is Thorazine? For what condition is Benzodiazepine Athkanesia? What drugs are prescribed for depression? What neurotransmitters are associated with depression? 12 What is Electro-convulsive Treatment for depression? When is it used?