Physioex 8.0 Exercise 10

Exercise 10: Acid/Base Balance Worksheet

Assignment Due: Week 1

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Student instructions: Follow the step-by-step instructions for this exercise found in your text and record your answers in the spaces below. Submit this completed document by the assignment due date found in the Syllabus. Please make sure that your answers are typed in RED. Please type your Name and Student ID Number here: Stephanie Brewer 4189660

Activity 1: Normal Breathing

  1. At 20 seconds, pH = 7. 41
  2. At 40 seconds, pH = 7. 41
  3. At 60 seconds, pH = 7. 41
  4. Did the pH level of the blood change at all during normal breathing? If so, how? No.
  5. Was the pH level always within the “normal” range for the human body? Yes.
  6. Did the PCO2 level change during the course of normal breathing? If so, how? No, the level stayed steadily at 40mm.

Activity 2a: Hyperventilation – Run 1

  1. At 20 seconds, pH = 7. 45
  2. At 40 seconds, pH = 7. 53
  3. At 60 seconds, pH = 7. 67
  4. Maximum pH =7. 68
  5. Did the pH level of the blood change at all during this run? If so, how? Yes, the pH level of the blood increased.
  6. Was the pH level always within the “normal” range for the human body? If not, when was the pH value outside of the normal range, and what acid/base imbalance did this pH value indicate? No, at 40 seconds the pH value indicated alkalosis.
  7. Did the PCO2 level change during the curse of this run? If so, how? Yes, the Pco2 level decreased significantly.
  8. If you observed an acid/base imbalance during this run, how would you expect to renal system to compensate for this condition? Increasing H+ absorption by increasing HCO3 secretion.
  9. How did the hyperventilation trace differ from the trace for the normal breathing? Did the tidal volumes change? The trace was erratic and the tidal volume increased to approximately 3 liters.
  10. What might cause a person to hyperventilate? Fever or anxiety can cause hyperventilation.

Activity 2b: Hyperventilation – Run 2

1. What happened to the trace after the 20-second mark when you stopped the hyperventilation? Did the breathing return to normal immediately? Explain your observation. When I stopped the hyperventilation at the 20-second mark breathing completely stopped for approximately 7 seconds, then began again at a normal rate.

Activity 3: Rebreathing

  1. At 20 seconds, pH = 7. 35
  2. At 40 seconds, pH = 7. 29
  3. At 60 seconds, pH = 7. 24
  4. Did the pH level of the blood change at all during this run? If so, how? Yes, the pH level of the blood decreased.
  5. Was the pH level always within the “normal” range for the human body? If not, when was the pH value outside of the normal range, and what acid/base imbalance did this pH value indicate? No, acidosis occurred at 40 seconds when the pH dropped out of “normal” range to 7. 29.
  6. Did the PCO2 level change during the course of this run? If so, how? Yes, the Pco2 level elevated.
  7. If you observed an acid/base imbalance during this run, how would you expect the renal system to compensate for this condition? Increasing HCO3-, excreting more H+ to balance the pH of the blood.
  8. How did the rebreathing trace differ from the trace for normal breathing? Did the tidal volumes change? Rebreathing trace had a larger gap between the varying high and low points. Normal breathing it was approximately 2. 5-3 liters, whereas rebreathing was approximately 2. -3. 5 liters.
  9. Give examples of respiratory problems that would result in pH and PCO2 patterns similar to what you observed during rebreathing? Airway obstruction, depression of the respiratory center in the brain stem, lung disease and drug overdose can all acidosis.

Renal System Compensation

Activity 4: Renal Response to Normal Acid/Base Balance

  1. At normal PCO2 and pH levels, what level of H+ was present in the urine? Normal.
  2. What level of [HCO3-] was present in the urine? Normal.
  3. Why does the blood pH value change as PCO2 changes? An increase in carbon dioxide in body fluids increases the H+, which lowers the pH.
  4. How does the blood pH value change as Pco2 changes? As Pco2 elevates the blood pH decreases.

Activity 5: Renal Response to Respiratory Alkalosis

  1. What level of [H+] was present in the urine at each of these PCO2/pH levels? 35/Normal. 30/Decreased. 20/Decreased.
  2. What level of [HCO3-] was present in the urine at each of these PCO2/pH levels? 35/Normal. 30/Elevated. 20/Elevated.
  3. Assuming that enough time has passed for the renal system to fully compensate for respiratory alkalosis, would you expect PCO2 levels to increase or decrease? Would you expect blood pH levels to increase or decrease? Pco2 levels would increase and blood pH levels would decrease.
  4. Which type of breathing resulted in PCO2 levels closest to the ones we experimented with in this activity – normal breathing, hyperventilation, or rebreathing? Hyperventilation.
  5. Explain why this type of breathing resulted in alkalosis. It increased the carbon dioxide in the blood, which resulted in alkalosis when the pH balance of the blood increased beyond “normal” range, the body then increased H+ in order to decrease the pH.

Activity 6: Renal Response to Respiratory Acidosis

  1. What level of [H+] was present in the urine at each of these PCO2/pH levels? Elevated.
  2. What level of [HCO3-] was present in the urine at each of these PCO2/pH levels? Decreased.
  3. Assuming that enough time has passed for the renal system to fully compensate for respiratory acidosis, would you expect PCO2 levels to increase or decrease?
    Would you expect blood pH levels to increase or decrease? Pco2 levels would decrease and the blood pH levels would increase.
  4. Which type of breathing resulted in PCO2 levels closest to the ones we experimented with in this activity – normal breathing, hyperventilation, or rebreathing? Rebreathing.
  5. Explain why this type of breathing resulted in acidosis. H+ became elevated in the body fluids which caused the pH levels to drop below the “normal” range.

Metabolic Acidosis and Alkalosis Activity 7: Respiratory Response to Normal metabolism

  1. What is the respiratory rate? 15.
  2. 2.What is the blood pH? 7. 39
  3. 3. Are the blood pH and PCO2 values within normal ranges? Yes.

Activity 8: Respiratory Response to Increased Metabolism

  1. How did respiration change? Increased.
  2. How did blood pH change? Decreased.
  3. How did PCO2 change? Increased.
  4. How did [H+] change? Increased.
  5. How did [HCO3-] change? Decreased.
  6. Explain why these changes took place as metabolic rate increased? More carbon dioxide being formed as a metabolic waste product results in increased production of H+ which lowers plasma and causing acidosis due to the drop in blood pH levels.
  7. Which metabolic rates caused pH levels to decrease to a condition of metabolic acidosis? Rates of 60 and higher.
  8. What were the pH values at each of these rates? 60/7. 34. 70/7. 26. 80/7. 24.
  9. By the time the respiratory system fully compensated for acidosis, how would you expect the pH values to change? Increased respiration would expel carbon dioxide from the blood and decrease H+ in order to increase the blood pH levels.

Activity 9: Respiratory Response to Decreased Metabolism

  1. How did respiration change? Decreased.
  2. How did blood pH change? Decreased.
  3. How did PCO2 change? Decreased.
  4. How did [H+] change? Decreased.
  5. How did [HCO3-] change? Increased.
  6. Explain why these changes took place as metabolic rate decreased? The decrease in respiration increased carbon dioxide in the blood which increased H+ and decreases pH levels as well.
  7. Which metabolic rates caused pH levels to increase to a condition of metabolic alkalosis? 30 and 40
  8. What were the pH values at each of these rates? 40/7. 45. 30/7. 48. 40/7. 51.
  9. By the time the respiratory system fully compensated for alkalosis, how would you expect the pH values to change? Decrease back within the “normal” range of 7. 35-7. 45.

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