David Rosand: Venetian Aesthetic and the ‘Disegno-Coloritd Controversy 1 . Florentine Acadaemia delle Arts del Disegno – represented values first formulated in quattrocento Florence 2. New Renaissance artist = valued fame over money, work = liberal, not mechanical, intellectual not material 3. One of Vasari’s greatest contributions = assembling various artists within a single organization 4. Disegno – three “padre” art= architecture, sculpture and painting a. Florentine artists had no issue with going across mediums so they could paint, sculpture, etc. a. i.
This would ave been “illegal” in Venice 0 be exclusive in one thing 5. Venetian architecture paved the way for the emancipation of painting in quattrocento Florence 6. Vasari – practical and theoretical importance of drawing 7. Disegno – provides the measure of progress in the arts from their rebirth with Giotto to the overwhelming teleological achievement of Michelangelo a. Drawing is viewed as the key to the entire imaginative process, the medium of the painters very thought as well as of its concrete expression 8. The quality of the drawing provides critical measure of the aintings 9.
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Vasari’s definition of painting – a place the surface of which is covered by fields of colors… bounded by lines… which by virtue of a good drawing of circumscribed lines define the fgure. 10. Ducal palace’s frescoes deteriorated because of humidity and salinity of a lagoon 0 paintings on canvases became the new way of painting in Venice a. Canvas became the tradition, paint with oil medium, apply color in glazes, darker tones over lighter ground, the painter could create a light that seemingly emanate from the depths of the picture itself b.
Panel pictures ere still popular, but cabinet pictures for private patrons became popular b. i. The new technique involved a reversal of priorities and sequence in executions 1 1 . Girogione’s tonalism was different because of the actual texture of paint 0 characters share a common atmosphere and appear to share a communality of fabric 12. Girogione would paint directly onto the canvas, no preliminary drawing 0 this was very different compared to the common accepted knowledge of drawing first and then painting 13.
Disegno – becomes the central issue in the great aesthetic debate f the cinquecentro, which would establish a basic tenet of international academic doctrine for the next two centuries at least 14. Vasari did see the achievement in Venetian painting, even though he thought that drawing was very important 15. Vasari used a technique described as “brushes as big as the broom 16. Giorgione and Titian constantly were altering and adjusting their compositions in the course of executing the work. 17. Venetians viewed painting and drawing as two separate things 18.
Venetian draftsmanship – can be understood through Venetian painting 9. Venetians, according to Vasari, lacked the means of freeing themselves from slavish dependence on nature and were forced to conceal under the superficial charm of coloring their ineptitude about drawing 20. “Copy ancient sculptures to get the “idea” 21 . Venetians generally do not use the term colore, but rather colorito or colorure, applied, the effect of color depends on the painters brush 22. Maniera – the blending of colors, which is softness, the working of colors to distinguish the individual parts, the highlighting and deepening of tones 23.
II colpo sprezzante – bold stroke, the freedom of coloring and muting or scumbling to create greater tonal unity 24. Florentine color serves to enhance delineated formal distinctions 25. The controversy between Venetian and Florentine art revealed fundamental differences in value a. Venetian colorito – tendency toward the allusive and the implicit, its refusal to yield to objective control Comparative Merits of the Arts 1 . Comparison of art = popular during middle ages 0 artists claimed the right to be admitted among the members of the seven liberal arts, secure a higher social status .
Writers constantly wrote about this comparison and it was often apparent which side they appreciated more 3. Leonardo on the Paragone a. The only difference between painting and sculpting is that the sculptor has more physical fatigue 0 sculpts by the force of his arm b. Sculptors look like theyVe worked hard, baker-like because the white powder of the stone gets all over their faces c. Painters are the exact opposite, very clean and works with great ease d. Sculptors have to make their work look good from all sides, this can be a mental fatigue for the culptor, even though in reality his fatigue is only physical d. . If you take off to much stone you cannot Just add more like a painter can d. ii. Excessive removal of material arises from his ignorance, which makes him remove more or less than he should e. Painter has 10 different subjects to consider in carrying his work to completion e. i. fewer matters to consider and consequently is less fatiguing to the mind than is painting g. Paintings have to look like they are detached from a wall or any other flat surface h. Sculpture has to make it appear as it is .
Painter has to evaluate quantities of shadows ad light j. Painting has greater mental analysis, more marvelous in that sense than sculpture k. Painting Justifies by reference to nature the reasons of the pictures with follow its laws l. Bas-relief – seen from the front. Less work than doing the whole sculpture, but more study m. The way the light hits a sculpture must be the same as the light that hit it when it was being made because if it is not than there is a strong likelihood that the sculpture will be distorted 4. Varachi’s Inquiry .
Sculpture is more permanent than painting, they insist on it being more beautiful and noble, a statue takes much more effort than a painted fgure b. The work must look good from all views 5. Michaelangelo a. Painting is considered excellent in proportion as it approaches the effect of relief while relief is considered bad in proportion as it approaches the effect of painting b. He says that painting and sculpting are one in the same 6. Pino’s a. Sculpture executed “by adding” is modeling which is considered inferior to marble scultupure