Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) BY S12502 What is organizational citizenship? Explain the links between the various types of organizational citizenship behaviors and Job-related outcomes. In what ways does organizational citizenship affect organizational performance? Illustrate with examples where appropriate. Organizational Citizenship Organizational citizenship is an organizational success that consists of supports from the volunteers of individuals and behavior (Business Dictionary 2013).
Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) is defined as discretionary individual behavior which is ndirectly recognized by a system – Formal Reward System and the efficiency together with the effectiveness functioning of an organization will be promoted collectively. Organizational citizenship behavior is seen as the task performance (Organ 1997). It is supported by the contributions to the enhancement and maintenance of the context of social and psychological (Nielsen et al. , p. 669). Characteristics of OCB According on Johns & Saks (2007, p. 138), the characteristics of organizational citizenship behaviors are: 1. Voluntary 2.
Spontaneous 3. Improves organizational effectiveness . Not necessarily to be rewarded First, the behavior is not forced, which by all means it is voluntary. For instance, Mr. Andy might got stuck with his working proposal and got irritated with the high difficulty level of the proposal while some other colleague, Mr. Bill perhaps, came along and offered a help to Mr. Andy instead of Mr. Andy requesting for it. The “offering” did by Mr. Bill is considered as voluntary. Secondly, the behavior is spontaneous where it wasn’t requested, suggested or ordered by someone. Back to the example, Mr. Andy did not requested for Mr.
Bill’s help and Mr. Bill came to offer by himself. Besides that, this behavior also provides organizational effectiveness. There is an increase in terms of effectiveness by a personal favor done. Lastly, the behavior is unlikely to be rewarded by the performance evaluation system of the company since it is not part of the Job description where he/she is not obliged to do Various types of organizational citizenship behaviors and Job related outcomes Johns & Saks (2007, p. 138) states that OCB exists in various forms. An outstanding form is altruism a. k. helping behavior, offering help to people voluntarily (Podsakoff et al. 000, p. 516). People with this form is suitable to work for nursing, nannies as they have the heart to help others which makes them love their career and reaching personal Job satisfaction as they works. It helps to promote their efficiency on their job which aids the organization itself. Another type would be being conscientious to the details of Job which covers conserving organizational resources and getting in on doctors, they can never stop working, even at the snowiest day of the year as entioned, if there is any emergency happens on that they, they still have to work.
Even like President Obama for example, he must be conscientious to the details of his job by conserving the resources available in his country. Only with conscientious, they automatically get themselves committed into their career without complaints. Thus, leads to satisfaction and gradually efficiency in their work. Third form would be being a good sport or sportsmanship (MacKenzie, Podsakoff & Fetter 1993, p. 71), which means able to take a bad situation well (The Online Slang Dictionary 2013). The job related outcome would be being a footballer.
Every match of the game ends with a winning and a losing team, teams take turns playing roles either as winning or losing. As for footballers, they must be a good sport to handle bad situations well able to congratulate the winners willingly. Even in organizations, employees could face situations like not having the desirable working shifts or managers, accepting arrangement without complaints – being a good sport (Sportsmanship 2013). Civic virtue is when participation is involved with responsibility of an employee that is oncerned with the life of the company.
For example, functions/meetings that is organized by the company might not be necessary for employees to attend but the employees still attend in order to keep up with the chances in the organization, and taking the advantage to provide how can the company performs better (MacKenzie, Podsakoff & Fetter 1993, p. 71). Next type of organizational citizenship behavior is courtesy and cooperation where in an organization, all employees work together as one body Oohns & M. Saks 2007, p. 56).
Examples could be informing departments bout what big proposal of project is coming or sacrificing oneself in terms of own work to help the other colleagues that are in a Job which is in an emergency mode. Podsakoff et al. (2000, p. 517) mentioned a form that consist of spreading good will, having the organization protected, loyalty towards organization and loyal boosterism – Organizational loyalty. It protects and defends the organization from external threats while promoting it outwardly. Such form usually exists on salesman or insurance agent where they have to promote their organization to people while rotecting and defending it as well.
Final form of OCB would be organizational compliance, in another word, organizational obedience (Graham 1991). This refers to an acceptance and internalization of the organization’s rules, regulation and procedures of a person. Together with this form, that particular person will not act rebellious in the organization but to follow the rules and regulations stated. It usually exists within employees that stays in an organization for a long term. Jehad Mohammad, Farzana Quoquab Habib and Mohmad Adnan Alias (2011, p. 52-153) tated that OCB is divided in two types: (OCBI) that includes courtesy and altruism which behaviors are directed specifically; and (OCBO), which is concerned with advantaging the organization as one covers conscientiousness, sportsmanship and civic virtue. OCBI With behaviours directed specifically to individuals in an organization, indirect contribution will be done to organizational effectiveness. OCBO Behaviors are not specifically directed to individuals. It is labelled as organizational compliance as internalization ofa company’s rules and policies are involved. For meetings.
Ways organizational citizenship affects organizational performance Dunlop & Lee (2004, p. 67) stated three distinct components that are identified in Job performance sphere as work behaviors are organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), task performance and workplace deviant behavior (WDB). OCB were discovered to be playing an important role in the organization as employee’s overall Job performance is determined by task performance (Motowidlo & Van Scotter 1994). Besides that, Dunlop & Lee (2004, p. 68) also explained that the overall organizational performance could be improved by OCB of workers.
This shows that there is a direct relationship between organizational citizenship behaviour of workers to with organizational performance where it can either improve or pull down the organization’s performance. Organizations does not progress individually, it requires continuous coordination as a whole. Zaria (2012, p. 81) states that the survival of an organization is held on OCB. When employees or departments in the organization practices altruism, it actually enable them to enhance their own personal effectiveness when helping out each other (MacKenzie, Podsakoff and Fetter 1993, p. ). A standardized level of citizenship performed within a group is defined as group-level OCB. It represents the shared expectations about citizenship of group members, social interactions that are regulated potentially and having social identities influenced (Ehrhart et al. , 2006). Social lubrication reduces social friction between members in an organization and promotes performance efficiencies that may improve group performance by citizenship behaviors. Prediction of group members’ performance is achievable which enables enhancement of group performance as it is time conserving.
This allows more time spent on scheduling and planning (Nielsen et al. 2012, p. 671). Proper allocation of time on work can also aid on the efficiency of the organization together as a team. Hence, leads to promotion in organizational performance. Zarea (2012, p. 81) states that OCBs enhances social capital in organizations. Productivity and efficiency of both employee(s) and the organization that contributes to the effective functioning of an organization can be maximized by organizational citizenship behavior. Thus, organizational performance will automatically improve. Based from the findings of Su-fen Chiu et al. 006, p. 517)’s article, it highlighted that diminished personal accomplishment and exhaustion in terms of emotion leads to negative impacts on OCB. When there is a bad impact on OCB, employees or team members will have the distinctive to perform lower than they should normally be. Therefore it leads to a fall in organizational performance of an organization. Conclusion In short, organizational citizenship behavior plays as a vital role in organizations. There are types of OCB includes altruism, conscientious, sportsmanship, civic virtue, courtesy and cooperation, organizational loyalty and compliance.
Each of them cannot be left out in different careers or organizations as it might turn out to be the source of stability of an organization or staying onto a career. Besides, it can also promote employees’ satisfaction on their career. With high satisfaction towards their career, they will automatically focus and spend more time on their work. Thus, team or organizational performance can be improved with better efficiency at work. In the nutshell, we can conclude that OCB is important as the effectiveness and (1299 words) References: Business Dictionary 2013, businessdictionary. om, viewed 12th October 2013, . Dunlop, P. D. & Lee, Kibeom 2004, Workplace Deviance, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, and Business Unit Performance: The Bad Apples Do Spoil the Whole Barrel’, Journal of Organizational Behaviour, No. 25, pp. 67-80 Ehrhart, M. G. , Bliese, P. D. , & Thomas, J. L. 2006, ‘Unit-level OCB and unit effectiveness: Examining the incremental effect of helping behavior’, Human Performance, Vol. 19, pp. 159-173. Graham, J. W. 1991 , ‘An essay on organizational citizenship behavior’, Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 249-270.
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