Nutrition and Obesity Researchers BY kellygur13636 Obesity and Ways to Overcome It 1 Obesity A. )What is Obesity? 1 . ) Too much body fat 2. ) BMI calculates this B. )What are the causes? 1 . ) Overeating/Fast food 2. ) Not enough exercise 3. ) Television advertisements 4. ) Genes C. )Physical effects 1 . ) Not attractive 2. ) Health problems a. ) Diabetes b. ) High blood pressure D. )Mental Effects 1 . ) Social discrimination 2. ) Bias due to media 3. ) Low self-esteem 4. ) Depression 5. ) Eating Disorders 6. ) Limitations E. )Prevention 1 . ) Limiting fast food and calorie intake 2. ) Read nutrition facts . Exercise F. )Conclusion 1 . ) Eating right and exercise is the key to being healthy 2. ) Websites that can help obesity Obesity is becoming a major issue in America today. More than one-third of the population is obese according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and nearly 112,000 people die each year from obesity-related illnesses (“Adult Obesity Facts”). Obesity is still on the rise and has been for years. Obesity can affect anyone regardless of age, race, or gender. THERE ARE MANY FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO OBESITY AND THESE CAN HAVE MANY NEGATIVE EFFECTS BUT REASEARCH HAS
SHOWN THAT HEALTHLY EATING HABITS AND EXERCISE CAN HELP AN INDIVIDUAL LIMIT THESE EFFECTS. Obesity simply means having too much body fat. This usually happens when one takes in more calories than he can burn off. This causes extra body fat and over time measured with BMI: Body Mass Index (BMI) can be used to measure both overweight and obesity in adults. It is the measurement of choice for many obesity researchers and other health professionals. BMI is a direct calculation based on height and weight, and it is not gender-specific.
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Most health organizations and published information on verweight and its associated risk factors use BMI to measure and define overweight and obesity. BMI does not directly measure percent of body fat, but it provides a more accurate measure of overweight and obesity than relying on weight alone (“How Obesity is Measured”). A BMI of 18. 5 to 24. 9 is considered healthy for adults. A BMI of 25 to 29. 9 is considered overweight, while a BMI of 30 and above is considered obese. People with BMIs of 18. 5 or less are considered underweight (“Weight Loss & Diet Plans”). Obesity can be caused by several things.
Eating too many fatty foods and not xercising is one cause. Some people think that fast food is to blame for obesity. Fast food is so tasty, convenient, and inexpensive. The portion sizes are bigger than they should be with supersize and extra-large. According to McDonald’s USA nutrition facts a big mac contains 550 calories, a large French fry contains 500 calories, and a large coke contains 310 calories. That’s a total of 1,360 calories for one meal which is more than half of the daily recommended amount of 2,000 calories (“McDonald’s USA Nutrition Facts for Popular Menu Items”). Fast food advertisements are constantly shown on television.
Advertisers spend so much money advertising messages for children and teens. In the book Obesity and the Media, O’conner states: “According to a Kaiser Family Foundation study, the average American child watches more than forty thousand television commercials per year… Most of these forty thousand ads are for candy, cereal, soda, and fast food” ( O’conner 21). It’s no wonder people choose fast food over healthy, home cooked meals. Genes can also cause obesity. The genes that could influence obesity are still being investigated. Freedman states: “According to the U. S. Centers for Disease
Control and prevention, several independent studies have reported that a gene referred to as an FTO(fat mass- and obesity-associated) gene might be responsible for up to 22 percent of all cases of common obesity in general population”(Freedman 14). If a person’s parents are obese, he is at risk of becoming obese. If both of a person’s parents are obese, this risk doubles. Children tend to follow the eating habits of their parents. So if the parent is always eating fatty foods, the child follows because they think it is okay (“How Parents Are Influencing Their Children’s Bad Eating Habits”). In todays society Obesity is not attractive.
Rarely do you see someone who is obese in movies or magazines because she is not physically attractive to most people. Not only does obesity affect someone on the outside, obesity can also cause many physical effects to one’s health. Being overweight or obese can increase the likelihood of developing serious health problems including the following: type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, coronary heart disease, stroke, some types of cancer, gall bladder disease, osteoarthritis, respiratory problems, and sleep apnea (“Overview of Obesity’). the book The Mental and Physical Effects of Obesity, Jeri Freedman states:
Ninety percent of people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes. Studies have shown a close relationship between obesity and type 2 diabetes. In the past, most cases of type 2 diabetes were diagnosed in middle-aged and elderly people. However, in numbers of preteens and teens have been diagnosed recent years, increasing with type 2 diabetes (22). This can make the lives of these people very difficult. A person with diabetes is supposed to follow a special diet, take medication, and constantly monitor the level of sugar in his blood. If this is not followed, it could cause other problems and could be fatal (22).
High blood pressure, which can also be linked to obesity, is a serious condition that can lead to coronary heart disease, heart failure, stroke, kidney failure, and other health problems. In an online article titled “High Blood Pressure and Obesity’ it says: “Many medical studies have shown a relation between obesity and high blood pressure. In fact, obese people have a higher blood pressure than people with a normal blood pressure. The cardiovascular risk is increased with obesity’ (“High Blood Pressure and Obesity’). It’s alarming to know that obesity can cause this many health problems.
There are also many mental issues that are linked to obesity. Social discrimination is common among people who are obese. Obesity is looked down upon. People can learn to be biased from messages in the media. In the book Obesity Discrimination by Dale-Marie Bryan, he states: A 2002 study published in Research and Practice by Greenberg, Eastin ,Hofschire, Brownell and Lachlian, showed that in real life, one in four women is obese, but on television only three out of every one hundred women are portrayed as heavier. It also showed that men in real life are three times more likely to be large-sized than he men on television (27).
With that said, people think that the world should be skinny, and try to live up to those standards. Discrimination can happen at school, work, and even within families. Sometimes children who are obese are ignored and made fun of by other children. This can cause low self-esteem. Low self-esteem can lead to depression. Freedman states: “Depressed people often have low energy, which makes them less likely to get exercise and more likely to stay home and eat” (33). Obesity can also lead to eating disorders because of the emphasis of being overweight.
In an online article it states: “High numbers of adolescent girls are reporting that they are dissatisfied with their bodies and are trying to lose weight in unhealthy ways, including skipping meals, fasting, and using tobacco. A smaller number of girls are even resorting to more extreme methods such as self-induced vomiting, diet pills, and laxative use. “(“Eating Disorders and Obesity’). People who are obese cannot do some of things that people who aren’t obese can do. One example is, when going to an amusement park, there are weight limits on the rides, and the seats are made for smaller people. Someone who is obese cannot get n.
Movie theaters, bathrooms, and restaurant booths are all made for smaller frames so being obese makes it hard to use these. A friend of mine, is considered obese. She is 25 years old, weighs 300 pounds and is 5’8. She has been obese since elementary school. I conducted a phone interview Being obese has affected me physically because it’s hard for me to do physical activities and I become out of breath and tire easily. Mentally, I often feel depressed because of my weight. Sometimes I feel that people look at me differently because of my weight and criticize me. I have been called fat and a whale numerous times by my peers.
It is something that I struggle with every day. I haven’t had a serious relationship with a male and I believe that it is because of my weight. Guys Just don’t seem to find me attractive. Both of my parents have passed away at a young age due to being obese. They both suffered from diabetes and high blood pressure. My mother was 45 when she died and my father was 47. This has opened my eyes and I have been trying to change my eating habits and exercise more. It is not easy though since I have been this way all my life. Being obese affects Katie in many ways. It is sad to hear how people treat her because of her weight.
In my eyes, she is a great person, and I don’t Judge her by her weight. I do try to encourage her to change her eating habits and exercise more frequently because I don’t want her to lose her life because of her obesity. There are several ways that obesity can be prevented and treated. Limiting the amount of food, especially fast food, is a good way. Because fast food is so high in cholesterol and fat, limiting the amount eaten to no more than once per week can prevent someone from becoming overweight or obese. Reading the nutrition labels on foods being eaten is a good way to recognize how much fat and calories is in it.
The FDA recommends that someone should choose foods that have fewer calories per serving and that are lower in saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium . The majority of calories someone eats should come from vegetables, milk, whole grains, fruit, and smaller amounts of meat. Portion control should be practiced (“Using Nutrition Labels”). Here are some suggestions from the FDA: Don’t think of certain foods as “off-limit”, instead start by reducing the portion size of the unhealthy foods that you crave and add something healthy on to your plate. Use smaller plates, drink more water, and start implementing the plate model
MyPlate enforced by the U. S. Department of Agriculture. When eating out, it’s a good idea to choose a starter like a delicious salad and then skip the supersized meal and order a normal sized meal instead. Healthy eating also means to eat slowly and make sure to chew your food properly for a better digestion. If you have a habit of eating in front of the TV or computer, it’s easy that you overeat. Make time to eat and dont rush it and enjoy your food without distractions (“Eating Health can be easy’). Exercising on a regular basis can help someone to stay fit and in shape by burning off excess calories.
Bill Hendrick, a writer for WebMD Health News says, “While frequent exercise is known to fght obesity and improve mental health, as little as 30 minutes of physical activity one or two days a week can have benefits”. Exercise can improve someone’s mood because it causes the brain to release chemicals that can make someone more relaxed and less stressed out. It helps weight management and can even help someone to sleep better. (Hendrick). In the article “Exercise and Physical Fitness” it states that, “Regular exercise is a critical part of staying healthy. People who are active live longer and feel better.
Exercise can help you maintain a healthy weight. It can delay or prevent diabetes, physical activity at least five days per week. Examples include walking briskly, mowing the lawn, dancing, swimming for recreation or bicycling. Stretching and weight training can also strengthen your body and improve your fitness level” (“Exercise and Physical Fitness”). Obesity is something that has been growing in America. With the harmful effects that come with it, many measures are taken to address it and treat it. It can be hard to lose weight and it doesn’t happen overnight some people are taking steps to help it.
Eating right and exercising is the key to being healthy and fit. A good way to measure BMI and determine if someone is overweight or obese is to visit cdc. gov and use the BMI tracker. There is a website available (www. myfitnesspal. com) that can track calorie intake and exercise. Many other websites are available to help overcome obesity. There are also groups someone can attend to get help, one example is weight watchers. Although obesity is still a major issue today people can get the help and take the steps needed to overcome it. Works Cited “BMI Calculator Plus: Personalized BMI for Your Body Type and Metabolism.
WebMD. WebMD, n. d. web. 28 NOV. 2012. Bryan, Dale-Marie. Obesity Discrimination. First ed. New York: Rosen Central, 2009. Print. “Eating Healthy Can Be Easy. ” Food Pyramid. N. p. , n. d. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. “Exercise and Physical Fitness. ” U. S National Library of Medicine. U. S. National Library of Medicine, n. d. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. Freedman, Jeri. The Mental and Physical Effects of Obesity. First ed. New York: Rosen pub. , 2009. print. Hendrick, Bill. “Even a Little Exercise Fights Obesity. ” WebMD. WebMD, n. d. Web. 08 NOV. 2012. “High Blood Pressure and Obesity. ” Blood-pressure-hypertension. com. N. p. , n. d. web. NOV. 2012. “How Is Obesity Measured? ” Annecollins. com. N. p. , n. d. Web. 08 Nov. 2012. McAlpine, Katie. “How Does Obesity Affect Your Life. ” Telephone interview. 08 Nov. 2012. “McDonald’s USA Nutrition Facts for Popular Menu Items. ” Nutrition. mcdonalds. com. N. p. , n. d. web. 28 NOV. 2012. “Overview of Obesity. ” Summa Health System. N. p. , n. d. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. “Using the Nutrition Facts Label. ” Fda. gov. N. p. , n. d. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. Wilkinson, Michelle. “How Parents Are Influencing Their Children’s Bad Eating Habits. ” Dr Akilah El Celestial Healing Wellness Center. N. p. , n. d. Web. 28 Nov. 2012.