57. pdf downloaded by ytwongaJ from http:// at 2013-12-09 08:39:27. Academic use within HKUST only. MGMT 2110: Organizational Behavior Fall 2011 Dr. PrithviraJ Chattopadhyay EXAM II sample Instructions For the multiple choice questions, choose the one BEST answer and mark it on the bubble sheet with a PENCIL. Write the color (White) of your exam paper on the top right hand corner of your bubble sheet. For the essay questions, write your answer on the exam paper itself. No extra paper will be provided. You must hand in BOTH the bubble sheet and the exam when you are done.
No re- entrance once you leave the exam hall. You have 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete the exam. Complete the following information before you hand in your exam: I have neither given nor received aid during this exam. Signature Print Your Name Student ID number For use by the Examiners Part I( part II QI part II Q2 Total Part l: Multiple Choice Questions (1. 5 points each – answers on the last page) 1 . Which of the following best describes how emotions influence the problem identification process? A: Emotions have no effect on how people identify problems.
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B: The emotional brain center classifies incoming perceptual information as bad or ood, which then influences the rational brain center’s evaluation about whether that situation is a problem. C: Emotions mainly determine signal us to follow either a programmed or nonprogrammed decision process. D: If the rational brain center determines that the situation is a problem, it transmits this evaluation to the emotional center, which then energizes the decision maker to act without choosing alternatives. E: Emotions ensure that we rely on the rationality and avoid intuition in the decision making process. . Which of the following is a potential problem when evaluating and choosing alternatives in decision making? A: Limited information processing B: Implicit favorite C: Satisficing D: All of the above E: only ‘A’ and ‘C’ 3. The Director of Nursing is looking for a new work schedule for nurses throughout the hospital. She evaluates a schedule system as soon as she learns about it. Eventually, she finds a schedule that is ‘good enough’ for her needs, even though there may be better schedules available that she hasn’t yet learned about.
The Director of Nursing is engaging in: A: c: escalation of commitment. perceptual defense. satisficing. post-decisional Justification. none of the above. 4. Which of the following questions is NOT explicitly considered in the contingencies of employee involvement? D: Do subordinates need to develop their decision-making skills? Is conflict among subordinates over preferred solutions likely? Is the problem unique? How important is subordinate commitment to the decision? Do subordinates have sufficient information to make a high-quality decision? 5.
Which of the following statements about teams and groups is FALSE? A: Some teams may not have any norms. Team members do not need to be friends. Team members are interdependent with one another to some degree. All members f a work group have some degree of influence in the team. A team always requires a purpose. 6. How do norms affect the behavior of team members? Norms encourage members to try new behaviors not previously sanctioned by the team. Norms represent the glue or esprit de corps that holds the team together. Norms help the team regulate and guide the behaviors of its members.
Norms help the team move from the forming to storming stages of team development. Norms apply to the attitudes and beliefs, not the behaviors, of team members. 7. As team leader, you discover that a competitor is about to develop a similar roduct that your group is currently developing. Your team’s success (developing a better product sooner) is still possible, but will be challenging. What is most likely to happen if you tell your team members about this external threat? The team would become more cohesive. The team would try its best to introduce dysfunctional norms.
The team would move quickly to the adjourning stage of team development. Individual team members would become more productive through social loafing. All of the above. 8. In team dynamics, process losses are best described as: information about team processes that are lost when team members need to make riends. information about team processes lost due to imperfect communication between two members. knowledge lost when a team member leaves the organization. team resources expended towards team development and maintenance. none of the above. 9.
A financial institution wants to create online communities whereby employees can quickly receive information about a specific current question or topic from colleagues throughout the organization. Which of the following communication media would likely work best in this situation? A: company newsletter Instant messaging E-mail Weekly interest group meetings Interdepartmental mail 10. Safety representatives in each of the six plants of a manufacturing company need to communicate to each other every week the number and type of health and safety incidents in their plant.
Each representative has a safety reporting document where he or she checks off the type and number of infractions during the previous week. These incidents are well known to other representatives; there are rarely any surprises. This weekly communication calls for: high media richness. high emotional contagion. mostly nonverbal communication. face-to-face meetings. elatively low media richness. 2 1 1 . Japanese culture tends to value silence in communication because: A: it clearly symbolizes that the listener disagrees without actually saying so. t symbolizes respect. it indicates that the listener is thoughtfully contemplating what has Just been said. of all of the above. of ‘B’ and ‘C’. 12. Active listeners improve their evaluating activities by: A: organizing information. showing interest. clarifying the message. interrupting when they disagree with the speaker. doing all of the above. 13. Which of the following statements about power is FALSE? A: Each type of power may be linked to more than one influence tactic B: Power requires interdependence in the relationship.
C: Power is the capacity to influence, rather than the actual practice of influencing others. D: Power exists only when one person has something of value for a second person, but the second person has nothing of value for the first person. E: People sometimes gain power by convincing others that they have something of value for them. 14. Until recently, a large sales organization gave supervisors all key information for further distribution to their employees. But with the introduction of a company intranet and other information technologies, this information is now mostly available directly to employees.
By distributing corporate information directly to employees rather than through their supervisors, the company has: A: increased the legitimate power of supervisors. decreased the information based power of supervisors. increased the centrality of supervisors. decreased the company’s ability to cope with uncertainty. increased the expert power of supervisors. 15. Which of the following would potentially increase someone’s power through non- substitutability? A: Avoiding documenting unique knowledge about organizational processes. Increasing the number of people affected by your work.
Increasing the amount of autonomy granted to you to accomplish your work. Using Impresslon management strategies to Increase your popularlty wltn colleagues of the above. 3 . None 16. Which of the following is an example of the influence tactic of controlling information? A: A new executive immediately posts his diplomas and awards on the office wall for others to see. B: To demonstrate that cost overrun errors aren’t due to production employees, the production manager privately shows senior executives xamples of how the marketing manager makes mistakes on orders.
C: The vice- president of marketing deliberately places an issue that she dislikes near the bottom of next meetings agenda (rather than near the top) so there is less chance the meeting will have time to address that issue. D: To increase the chances of promotion to a more senior Job in the company, an employee exaggerates to management about his role on the executive of a non-profit group. E: Airline employees threaten to go on strike Just a few weeks before the company begins its busiest season and most profitable part of the year. 17.
Recent leadership writing suggests that emotional intelligence: is the only trait that distinguishes effective from ineffective leaders. is an important characteristic of effective leaders. is less important than early writing on leadership traits had assumed. is unrelated to effective leadership. is currently unimportant, but will become an important leadership trait as the workforce ages and Jobs become less production-oriented. 18. According to research, which of these was lower among employees who work for supervisors with low levels of task-oriented leadership?
Absenteeism orlevances Turnover Job dissatisfaction Job performance 19. Which leadership style in path-goal theory is most closely associated with goal setting and positive self-fulfilling prophecy? Directive Supportive Participative Achievement-oriented None of the above 20. Which of the following statements about the leadership substitutes model is FALSE? A: Some situational conditions substitute for task-oriented or people-oriented leadership styles. Some leadership substitutes are incorporated into the path-goal leadership theory.
Leadership substitutes neutralize or replace transformational rather than transactional leadership. Leadership substitutes include characteristics of the employee, task or organization that either limit the leader’s influence or make it unnecessary. E: Leadership substitutes take a contingency-oriented view of leadership. 4 Part II: Essay Questions (35 points each – please answer two of the three following questions). 1. Teams are becoming more critical in todays increasingly competitive business world. Answer this set of questions based on course concepts on team dynamics.
Ratner tnan relying on aeslgn engineers alone to aeslgn new products, tn San Remo Resources wants to form teams of people from several departments to evelop more creative products. These teams will consist of design engineers, manufacturing engineers, marketing staff and purchasing staff. San Remo’s CEO believes that these teams will develop more creative products than design engineers did when working alone. Identify three potential constraints that might interfere with the CEO’s expected benefits of team-based decision making and creativity (20 points). Your answers may consider the following ideas: Time constraints.
Teams take longer than individuals to make decisions. Unlike individuals, teams require extra time to organize, coordinate and socialize. The larger he group, the more time required to make a decision. Team members need time to learn about each other and build rapport as well as to manage an imperfect communication process so that there is sufficient understanding of each other’s ideas. They also need to coordinate roles and rules within the decision process. Evaluation apprehension. Individuals are reluctant to mention ideas that seem silly because they believe (often correctly) that other team members are silently evaluating them.
This is most common in meetings attended by people with different levels of status or expertise or when members formally evaluate each other’s erformance throughout the year (as in 360-degree feedback). Evaluation apprehension is a problem when the group wants to generate creative ideas, because these thoughts often sound bizarre or lack logic when presented. Unfortunately, many potentially valuable ideas are never presented to the group because creative thoughts initially seem ridiculous and a waste of time. Pressure to conform.
Conformity causes team members to suppress their dissenting opinions about discussion issues, particularly when a strong team norm is related to the issue. When someone does state a point of view that violates the majority pinion, other members might punish the violator or try to persuade him or her that the opinion is incorrect. Groupthink. This is the tendency of highly cohesive groups to value consensus at the price of decision quality. There are strong social pressures on individual members to maintain harmony by avoiding conflict and disagreement.
They suppress doubts about decision alternatives preferred by the majority or group leader. Team members want to maintain this harmony because their selfldentity is enhanced by membership in a powerful decision-making body that speaks with one voice. High cohesiveness isn’t the only cause of groupthink. It is also more likely to occur when the team is isolated from outsiders, the team leader is opinionated (rather than remaining impartial), the team is under stress due to an external threat, the team has experienced recent failures or other decision-making problems, and the team lacks clear guidance from corporate policies or procedures. . Due to a corporate restructuring, three of the six employees who work on your corporate investment team have been transferred to other teams and three new recruits to the organization will be assigned 5 I ??”4eulA_6Y1 5/. p0T aownloaaea Dy ytwongaJ Trom nttpw to your team as replacements. Although the three new hires are experienced from other organizations, they are new to your organization and your team. Consequently, your team will pass through most stages of team development again.
Describe any three (3) stages of team development that your team will probably experience after the new recruits Join the team and provide an example of specific events that might occur in these stages (1 5 points). Any three of the first four stages of team development would be appropriate – the answer below does not include the examples. Forming. During this first stage, both new and current members learn about each ther while the new members receive an orientation about what is expected of them on the team.
The new members are probably on their best behavior and look for rules to follow. Current members might be on their guard somewhat, but engage in less information gathering and image management than the recruits. Storming. During this second stage, the new recruits start to assert their preferences more. They might suggest changes to existing practices (based on their experiences elsewhere). They also try to take on preferred informal roles. The existing team members may experience some conflict with the recruits as they try to defend xisting norms, role assignments and work practices.
Depending on the aggressiveness of the recruits and the responsiveness of current members, this could be a difficult stage for the team to pass through. This is particularly because the new recruits have previous experience from other organizations. Norming. This third stage occurs when recruits and current team members alike have formed common mental models regarding the team’s objectives and work processes. Task interdependence occurs more smoothly with less negotiation of behaviors required. This does not necessarily mean that new recruits have adjusted to the current ractices.
It is possible that recruits have adjusted the mental model by convincing current members to change in some way. Performing. In this fourth stage, the team becomes more task oriented and devotes less attention to team maintenance. Coordination is smooth and efficient and there is strong cooperation among team members. At this stage, there would be few differences between the new recruits and more senior team members. 2. Good communication is essential to any group’s or organization’s effectiveness. Answer this question based on course concepts on communication. 6