Qn. Leaders are born not made. Discuss. Introduction Definition of leadership: Leadership is a process of social influence in which one person enlists the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task. Simply put leadership is the art of motivating a group of people to act towards achieving a common goal. Studies of leadership have produced theories involving traits, situational interaction, function, behavior, power, vision and value, charisma and intelligence among others.
Theories of leadership: Trait Approach A trait is a distinguished characteristic or quality of a person that will result a person o behave in a certain way. Trait approach is focused on dealing with the differences of each individual. A person is unique because of the combination of different traits. Trait approach states that individual personalities are made up of broad dispositions. Trait approach further states that there are only few people who are born with the qualities of a leader. There are only very few people who have excellent combinations of leadership traits.
Successful leaders can be identified easily because they have the abilities, personality traits and interests that are different from those who are not ffective leaders. Here are Just some of the hundreds of traits of successful leaders that have been identified: 1. Is well adjusted and has emotional maturity; 2. Has the capacity to believe in one’ self and abilities; 3. Has the intense desire and motivation to lead other people to achieve common goals; 4. Possess integrity, honesty and trustworthy; 5. Has higher level of energy, ambition and initiative to accomplish things; 6.
Capable of knowing things and the industry he is into; 7. Capable of making analytical abilities and sound Judgment with other successful eaders. This theory hence concludes that leaders are born and not made since leadership is rooted in the characteristics that certain individuals possess. Situational and contingency theories The theory assumes that different situations call for different characteristics. According to the theory what an individual actually does when acting as a leader is in large part dependent upon on the type of the situation in which he functions.
Tannenbaum and Schmidt Schmidt (1958) identified three forces that led to the leader’s action: a) The forces in the situation ) The forces in the follower c) The forces in the leader This recognizes that the leader’s style is highly variable, and even such distant events as a family argument can influence decisions made in the work place. The theory further defines three leadership styles identifying which situations each style works better in as discussed below. ) The authoritarian leadership style, for example, is approved in management; b) The democratic leadership style is more adequate in situations that require consensus building; finally, c) The laissez-faire leadership style is appreciated or the degree of freedom it provides, but as the leaders do not “take charge”, they can be perceived as a failure in protracted or thorny organizational problems Thus theorist defined the style of leadership as contingent to the situation hence the term contingency theory.
Four contingency leadership theories appear more prominently in recent years namely: a) Fiedler contingency model, b) Vroom-Yetton decision model, c) The path-goal theory, d) The Hersey-Blanchard situational theory. Contingency theories of leadership focus on particular variables related to the nvironment that might determine which particular style of leadership is best suited for the situation. According to this theory, no leadership style is best in all situations. Success depends upon a number of variables, including the leadership style, qualities of the followers and aspects of the situation.
Behavioral Theories: Behavioral theories of leadership are based upon the belief that great leaders are made, not born. This leadership theory focuses on the actions of leaders not on mental qualities or internal states. According to this theory, people can learn to ecome leaders through teaching and observation. There are two general types of behavior exhibited by leaders: a) Concern for People b) Concern for Production This theory assumes that leaders can be made, rather than are born. “Great Man” Theories: Great man theories assume that the capacity for leadership is inherent – that great leaders are born not made.
These theories often portray great leaders as heroic, mythic and destined to rise to leadership when needed. The term “Great Man” was used because, at the time, leadership was thought of primarily as a male quality, specially in terms of military leadership. The theory assumes that a leader is different from the average person in terms of personality traits. Participative Theories: Participative leadership theories suggest that the ideal leadership style is one that takes the input of others into account.
These leaders encourage participation and contributions from group members and help group members feel more relevant and committed to the decision-making process. In participative theories, however, the leader retains the right to allow the input of others. This approach is also known as onsultation, empowerment, Joint decision making, democratic leadership, management by objectives (MBO) and power sharing. Management Theories: Management theories, also known as transactional theories, focus on the role of supervision, organization and group performance.
These theories base leadership on a system of rewards and punishments. Managerial theories are often used in business; when employees are successful, they are rewarded; when they fail, they are reprimanded or punished. Learn more about theories of transactional leadership. Transactional leader works through creating clear structures: Work requirements are clear Punishments are not always mentioned, but they are also well understood and formal systems of discipline are usually in place.
Relationship Theories: Relationship theories, also known as transformational theories, focus upon the connections formed between leaders and followers. Transformational leaders motivate and inspire people by helping group members see the importance and higher good of the task. These leaders are focused on the performance of group members, but also want each person to fulfill his or her potential. Leaders with this style often have high ethical and moral standards. A transformational leader examines and searches for the needs and motives of others while seeking a higher agenda of needs.
This theory assumes that: People will follow a person, who inspires them, A person with vision and person can achieve great things. The way to get things done is by injecting enthusiasm and energy. How leaders are born. Successful leaders can be identified easily because they have the abilities, personality traits and interests that are different from those who are not effective leaders. Here are Just some of the hundreds of traits of successful leaders that have een identified: 1. Is well adjusted and has emotional maturity; leaders.
Most of this traits if not all are inborn and one cannot acquire them through experience or learning. How leaders are made. Good leaders develop through a never ending process of self-study, education, training, and experience. If you have the desire and willpower, you can become an effective leader. Good leaders are continually working and studying to improve their leadership skills; they are not resting on their laurels. To inspire your workers into higher levels of teamwork, there are certain things you must be, know, and, do. These do not come naturally, but are acquired through continual work and study.
Conclusion In order to step forward, an individual needs to have the desire and drive to lead. Research suggests that these factors are personality traits, long-lived and durable. In order to be accepted by followers, a prospective leader needs to be perceived as a leader by the followers. Traits such as intelligence, physical attractiveness and extraversion are traits that followers look for in a leader. As much as we would like to believe that everyone can be a leader, the fact of the matter is that, fair or not, ollowers want a certain type of leader.
And like it or not, not all of us have the intelligence, drive or desire to lead. We need to stop believing that everyone can lead. But, everyone can be effective. To quote Sami Jo Small, Women’s Hockey Olympic Gold Chemers M. (1997) An integrative theory of leadership. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers. ISBN 978-0-8058-2679-1 Businessballs management information website – Leadership Theories page, “Integrated Psychological Approach” section:http:// www. businessballs. com/leadership-theories. htm#integrated-psychological- eadership Blake, R. Mouton, J. (1964). The Managerial Grid: The Key to Leadership Excellence. Houston: Gulf Publishing Co. House, Robert J. (1971). “A path-goal theory of leader effectiveness”. Administrative Science Quarterly Oohnson Graduate School of Management, corneli university) 16 (3): 321-339. dotno. 2307/2391905. JSTOR 2391905. “Review of Leadership and Decision Making”. Sloan Management Review. Spring 1974. Crawford, C. J. (2005). Corporate rise the X principles of extreme personal leadership. santa Clara, CA: XCEO. ISBN 0-9769019-0-0 ISBN 9780976901907