Infant and early childhood development

Smelling–> recognize mother’s scent iii. ‘v. Taste 1. Distinguish sweet, sour, bitter 3. Sweet is in breastwork v. Touch 1. Best developed sense at birth 2. Touching reflexes sensitive to touch and massage d. Perceptual skills I. Development 1 . Preference technique: look at 2 epics and see which one infant stares at longer 2. Habituation: show same thing to infant several times–> more times you show infant the less excited they get 3. Disambiguation: show a new toy that’s similar to habituation toy–> get excited again 4. Operant conditioning: infant associates toy/ noise with something lie. Looking 1.

Depth a. N.B. Scans edges I. Sees outline of faces it. Can’t discriminate mom when head is wrapped in scarf b. 3 months= perceives depth 2. Complex patterns a. Prefer complex pattern b. Color contrast c. Discriminate mom’s face Listening 1. 1 month= syllable sounds 2. 6 month= 2 syllable words/all sound contrasts of language–> under this is best time to learn language (parent needs to interact w/ infant and say these words) 3. Perceive different voices 4. Ability decreases over time ‘v. Intermeddle 1. Integrate info from senses 2. 1-6 months 3. Combined audio-visual stimuli 4. Combined rhythm and movement 5.

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Important in learning v. Parent/nurse role 1. Talk, sing, read 2. Label tings 3. Model good speech (enunciate and visualize mouth) 4. Emphasize conversation not direction 5. Give opportunity to talk 6. Listen to them/ask questions e. Health and wellness I. Mortality 1. Death of infant in 1st year of life 2. 7/1000 births 3. Causes b. Low birth weight (prematurely) c. KIDS (leading cause b/w 1 month-I year of life) d. Effect of maternal and cord/placental complications e. Accidents it. KIDS 1 . Sudden death in apparently healthy infant 2. Causation theories a. Viral infection b. Apneas c. Sleeping on stomach d.

Smoking e. Slow neuron molestation 3. Parent education a. Back to sleep b. No smoking in pregnancy/baby’s house Shaken baby syndrome 1 . Shaking causes brain damage and retinal hemorrhages 2. Causes a. History of abuse in family b. High parental expectations c. Lack of parental support/parental education d. Crying/fussy baby; unclear infant cues; prematurely lb. Health care–> routine medical check ups v. Nutrition 1. Breastfeeding a. Immunologic b. Enhances GIG function c. Ideal composition d. Protects against illness e. Enhances Jaw development f. Convenient, less money, ideal T, sterile g.

Psychological benefit h. Involution enhanced and weight I. Best for prematurely babies 2. Formula feeding a. Designed to resemble breast milk b. Eat less frequently c. Sleep through night earlier= more sleep for parents d. Anyone can feed e. Use Fee fortified formula until 1 year f. Dad can help 3. Recommendations a. Formula/breast feeding for 1 year c. Use whole milk for at least 3 year then 2% d. Solids begin 4-6 month e. Start 1 food at a time and feed for 2-3 days to detect allergies f. Don’t give nuts until 2 years g. No honey until 1 year 4. Malnutrition a. Impairs brain/nervous system/growth b.

Ca deficiency–> impairs bone growth c. Encountering deficiency–> may lead to language and social delays d. Anemia: Fee deficiency–> not as much O source (growth of organs is slower) e. Marauds: calorie and protein deficiency (may cause permanent neuron damage) f. Kwashiorkor: protein deficiency (may cause permanent neuron damage) v’. Immunization 1. Heap: heap B 2. Adapt: diphtheria, tetanus, pressures 3. Hip: hemophilia influenza B 4. POT. Pneumatic disease 5. Polio: polio 6. REV. Rota virus 7. Influenza: flu 8. MR..: measles, mumps, rubella 9. Variable: chickenpox 10. Heap: heap A vii. Immunization ages 1.

Birth–> Heap 2. 2 months–> Heap, Adapt, PVC, Hip, Polio, REV . 4 months–> Adapt, PVC, Hip, Polio, REV 4. 6 months–> Heap, Adapt, PVC, Hip, Polio, REV 5. 12 months–> MR.., PVC, Hip, Variable, Heap 6. 15 months–> Adapt 2. Cognitive infant development a. Cognitive changes I. Pigged 1 . Cognitive theory a. General I. Seniority phase (birth-18 months) it. Infant understands world through senses and motor actions iii. Infant uses simple symbols, words and pretend plan near the end of this period b. Vocabulary I. Assimilation: process of fusing incoming information to existing schemes to make sense of experiences I’.

Accommodation: changing a scheme to incorporate new information iii. Seniority intelligence: refinement of innate schemes by experiences of senses/motor actions c. Stages I. 1 (()-1 month) 1. Immediate present 2. Reflexes it. 2 (1-4 months) 1 . Coordination of looking, listening, reaching and sucking 2. Primary circular reactions (simple repetitive actions) 3 (4-8 months) 1. Simple links b/w stimuli and responses 2. Secondary circular reaction (repetition of action to trigger reaction outside body) ‘v. 4 (8-months) 1. Understanding casual connections 2. Means-end behavior (plan to achieve goal) v. 5 (12-18 months) 1 .

Environmental exploration more focused . Experimental quality 3. Tertiary circular reactions (variations of previous actions) v’. 6 (18-24 months) 1. Manipulate symbols 2. Generate solutions by thinking, not trial and error 3. Sophisticated means end behavior 2. Object permanence a. Realization that objects still exist when hidden from sight b. Stages I. 2 months= only rudimentary expectation (surprise when object disappears) it. 6-8 months= looking for missing object for brief amount of time iii. 8-12 months= reaching/searching for hidden toy 3. Imitation a. 2 months= can imitate actions they could see themselves make b. -12 months= an imitate other people’s facial expressions c. 1 year= imitation of any action that wasn’t in child’s repertoire d. 18 months= deferred imitation: child’s imitation of some action at a later time 4. Challenges a. Pigged underestimated cognitive capacity of infants b. May have wrongly equated infant’s lack of physical ability w/ lack of cognitive understanding c. Object permanence studies incorporating computer technology suggests development happens a lot earlier than predicted it. Object permanence research 1 . Speckle’s study of object permanence–> babies have some built in assumptions of object connections 2.

Billionaire a. Knowledge of objects isn’t built in but learning is innate b. Babies as young as 4 months show clear signs of object permanence 3. Recent theories–> object permanence is more of a process of elaboration/development than that of discovery b. Learning, categorizing and memory I. Classical conditioning 1. Learning of emotional responses as early as 1st week of life 2. Stimulus response connection it. Operant conditioning–> both sucking responses and head turning have been increased using reinforcement iii. Modeling 1 . Observers 2. Actors 1. 7 month olds= subordinates (high level) categories . 2 month olds= high level/basic level categories 3. 2 year olds= hierarchal categorization v. Memory 1. 1 months= 1 day 2. 3 months= 1 week 3. 6 months= 2 weeks or longer 4. Early memories are highly specific–> remember only if exactly same context c. Language I. Infant directed speech (DIM): baby sounds 1 . Mother’s: “mommy talk” 2. Parents: “daddy talk” it. Repetition iii. Expansion/recasting: repeat child sentence to be grammatically correct lb. Reinforcement 1. Reading 2. Talking v. Milestones 1 . 2-3 months= cooing, responds to talking w/ smiling and cooing 2. 20 weeks= vowel/ inconstant sounds w/ cooing 3. Months= babbles/uses phonemes of all languages 4. 8-9 months= phonemes, rhythms, intonation of home language, receptive vocabulary of 20-30 words 5. 12 months= expressive language/says single words 6. 12-18 months= uses word gesture combinations 7. 18-20 months= uses 2 word sentences/has expressive vocabulary of 100-200 words v’. Word recognition 1 . Syllable stress–> 7 months= discriminate b/w stressed and unstressed sounds 2. Receptive language–> 9-10 months= recognize spoken words vii. 1st words 1 . Expressive language–> 12-13 months= recognize/respond to meaningful words 2.

Holograph’s–> 12-18 months= gestures/single words 3. Naming explosion–> 16-24 months= rapid vocal growth viii. 1st sentences 1. Telegraphic speech a. Simple 2 word sentences b. Include noun, verb, adjective 2. Inflections a. Grammatical markers b. Plurals, tense ‘x. Differences in language development 1. Rate a. Early vs… Late use of words and sentences b. Catch up by age 6 2. Style a. Expressive 3. Culture a. Same development stages b. Sentence structure, inflections different d. Intelligence I. Denver II screening (1 month-6 years) 1. Personal-social 2. Fine motor-adaptive 3. Gross motor 4. Language it.

Bayle scale of infant development (for premature babies) 1 . Sensory skills 2. Motor skills 3. Social and personality infant development a. Theories I. Psychoanalytic perspectives–> greatest risk/ability to be attached (leads to attachment formation later in life) 1. Freud a. Infant needs to get needs met b. Infant needs to start to be independent (weaned) at the end of this stage 2. Erikson–> infant needs to be secure in attachment it. Ethological perspectives (bowl attachment theory) 1 . Attachment: emotional bond where a person’s sense of security is bound up in relationship (child can use mom as safe base) 2. T 2 years constitute a sensitive period for attachment in human infants 3. Crucial elements to secure attachment 4. Securely attached infants have secure relationships, better social skills, positive self-image and more empathy to others 5. Phases a. Birth-3 months I. Non-focused orienting and signaling it. Crying, smiling, eye contact to draw attention b. 3-6 months I. Focus on 1+ figures (person who gave them the most attention) lie. Directed signals to few people; less responsive to unfamiliar c. 6-24 months I. Secure base behavior it. Proximity seeking to safe person (usually mom/dad) d. 24+ months I.

Internal model it. Relates actions to effect on bond w/ caregiver b. Attachment I. Behaviors 1 . Stranger anxiety a. Fear of strangers b. 6-8 months of age c. Behaviors= clinging/looking away from strangers 2. Separation anxiety a. 8/9 months-18/24 months b. Desire proximity to primary caregiver d. Prolonged separation can have adverse effects 3. Synchrony: mutual intertwined pattern of parent child behavior a. Responsiveness b/w parent/child b. Associated w/ higher intelligence and larger vocal by 3 years 4. Social referencing: child uses facial expression/reaction of mother for what to do in novel situations it.

Variations 1. Secure a. Explores/separates b. Seeks parents for safe base 2. Insecure/avoiding a. Mother rejects/withdraws/avoids b. Avoids contact c. Shows no preference 3. Insecure/ambivalent a. Mother is inconsistent b. Little exploration c. Greatly upset on separation/not reassured upon mom’s return 4. Insecure/ disorganized a. Parent abusive b. Confused c. Moves toward mom yet looks away iii. Caregiver characteristics/attachment 1. Emotional responsiveness a. Emotional availability b. Contingent responsiveness 2. Marital status a. Married vs… Single I. Kids in married households usually better than in single it.

Usually depends on who has more resources/time b. Mother’s age–> older= better attachment 3. Mental health (depression)–> isn’t a secure attachment= bad lb. Secure attachment effects 1. More sociable 2. More positive in relationships w/ friends 3. Less clinging/dependent on teachers 4. Less aggressive/disruptive 5. More emotionally mature 6. Continues into adolescence a. More likely to be leaders b. Have higher self esteem c. Personality, temperament and self-concept I. No agreement on temperament today I’. Origin= nature vs… Nurture theory 1. Heredity 3. Neurological processes 4. Environment a. Goodness of fit .

Gender–> girls are better for social situations Thomas and Chess 1. Easy child (40%) a. Comfortable exploring/new situations b. Not fussy c. Stable routines 2. Difficult child (10%) a. More irritable b. Not comforted easily c. Don’t keep solid routines 3. Slow to warm up child (15%) a. Don have a lot of reactions b. Don’t have solid routine ‘v. 5 key dimensions of temperament 1 . Activity level 2. Approach, sociability, positive emotion 3. Inhibition/anxiety 4. Negative emotionality/irritability/anger 5. Effort control/task persistence d. Self-concept I. Subjective self: I exist it. Objective self 1 .

Qualities= gender, name, size 2. Mine iii. Emotional self: distinguishing b/w emotions/perception of other emotions e. Effects of non-parental care I. Over h of all 2 year olds are cared for by family members/daycare centers it. Increased number of working mothers iii. Research is mixed lb. Effects 1. Social a. Some studies show no differences in attachments b. Infants in non-parental care may be less securely attached c. Children in >20 hrs. ‘ week in non-parental care I. Social problems it. More aggressiveness toward peers Disobedience toward teachers 2. Physical a. Obesity issues b. Slower attachment of motor skills 3. Cognitive

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