effective performance in an activity or range of activities. Its purpose, in the work situation, is to enable an individual to acquire abilities or competencies in order that he or she can perform adequately a given task or Job. The first step in any training program is to determine whether training is needed and, if needed, specify what training should be accomplished. An analysis of the existing needs for training within an organization will identify the performance areas or programs where training should be applied.
A needs analysis gathers information about present practices and compares these practices to the desired way of doing business. The difference between where you are now and where you want to be defines where a training program should concentrate its effort. (Mitchell, 1993) This is true for educators. According to the Graduand Teacher Competencies Framework (GTCF), to develop competence, teachers need to progress from awareness to capacity building. The GTCF can help teachers identify the competencies they need and continue to build n them throughout their teaching career, through practice and professional development.
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Some practical ways of bringing up awareness-level competencies to capacity building would be through induction and mentoring within the school, professional development courses, or learning with more experienced teachers through professional learning communities. (Goh, 2009) But what are the competencies educators need? According to Low, et. al. (2009), 21st century educators should possess the following core competencies: professional ractice, leadership and management, and personal effectiveness.
A teacher who has Professional Practice seizes every opportunity to encourage learning, believing that all students can learn. And learning is not limited to the classroom. To this end, the teacher takes every opportunity to improve on his or her own professional practice, in order to provide quality learning. A teacher who possesses Leadership and Management is a leader who wins the hearts and minds of the students. Such a teacher sees the value in developing and working with others, including parents and olleagues, and actively seeks out opportunities for professional collaboration within and beyond the school.
A teacher who has Personal Effectiveness understands the importance of developing oneself before he or she is able to provide support for others. A teacher maintains high standards of personal and professional integrity when carrying out all duties and responsibilities. Moreover, according to Santopoalo (2008), there are 10 Core Competencies that constitute the body of knowledge adjunct faculty need to function effectively as educators in higher ducation settings.
These core competencies were designed to address the general population of adjunct faculty regardless of the discipline they teach; the level of their students; or the setting where learning occurs. These core competencies are: 1 . Maintain current knowledge needed to teach one’s subject matter. 2. Construct course content aligning objectives, methodology, and evaluation that supports the learning objectives of the higher education setting. 3. Manage the learning environment with a student-centered focus. 4. Employ appropriate teaching strategies that actively engage students and achieve desired outcomes. . Adapt teaching style to accommodate different student learning styles. 6. Interact effectively with a diverse student population. student feedback in a manner that supports learning. 9. Select and implement appropriate assessment methods to evaluate student learning. 10. Apply assessment results to improve teaching effectiveness. The competencies needed by educators should be developed. The Faculty Development Program is a critical factor towards uilding the strong foundation of an educational system to ensure quality education (www. hed. gov. ph). Recent research on professional development opportunities reveals the importance of quality professional development. Teachers should work together to design and implement professional development based on shared concerns and strengths. Promising professional development programs are evaluated ultimately on the basis of their impact on teacher effectiveness and student learning, and this assessment guides subsequent professional development efforts. (www. ed. gov)