I In the following examples, identify the features that belong to non-standard dialects of English. Then rewrite them in standard English trying to keep the meaning as close as possible to the initial utterance. 1. I ain’t saying nobody nothing. 2. It ain’t what you do, it’s the way how you do it. 3. It would have ended in tragedy, if it hadnt have been for the courage of the victim. 4. Me and her sister were caught stealing cookies from the cookie Jar. 5. Anyone wants this stuff can have it. 6. She dont pay the rent regular. 7. This is between you and l. 8. Both colloquiums are on Friday. . You use a different sort of English in the Times than in a gossip with your best friend. 10. Who’s gonna drive you home tonight? II Identify the properties of the following examples that belong to formal English. Then rewrite the examples in informal style trying to keep the meaning as close as possible to the meaning of the original utterance: 1. If he were my best friend I would not treat him like that. 2. To whom am I speaking? 3. We hid the documents, lest they be confiscated. 4. That which but twenty years ago was a mystery now seems entirely traightforward. 5.
He must be better informed than l. 6. She was the one about whose whereabouts the police inquired. Ill In the following sentences, identify parts of speech: 1 . He could never understand why his wife had not loved him when she married him. 2. Sam and Tom walked through the woods for half an hour. 3. I am aware that those parents of yours are extremely strict. 4. Someone has already told me that story before. 5. What were you doing when the storm broke? 6. My sister lives in Hong Kong. 7. Will they be here tonight? 8. Sue is going to help you, isn’t she? 9. We tried some of the wine they offered. 0. This house was sold to us by the owner. 11. But the thought of being a lunatic did not greatly trouble him. 12. One might be wrong about such sensitive issue. 13. A poor French nanny shouldn’t have been accused of conspiracy because she had nothing to do with it. 14. The police admitted to having made the biggest mistake possible in accusing an innocent man. 15. My mistakes were quickly forgotten. However, to this day his have never been. 16. He looks quite good for a man who had like them, though none of them made much sense to me. IV Match 1-10 with a-I: 1. Descriptive grammar deals 2.
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Words are classified in part-of-speech categories according to 3. Functional words are 4. Open class words are 5. According to their function verbs can be 6. Adjectives can be used 7. The part-of speech that introduces the relation 8. Variable words are 9. Grammar is used 10. Language can be a) the words that have grammatical meaning only. b) with forms and the structure of words (morphology) and with their customary arrangement in phrases and sentences (syntax ) c) lexical, copulative and auxiliary. ) of coordination and subordination are called conjunctions. e) to describe the structure of one language. ) standard, non-standard, formal and informal. g) the class of words that have grammatical paradigms. h) attributively and predicatively. i) nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs. j) their semantic and grammatical properties. V Fill in the blanks 1-10 with the appropriate term a-I: a) adjectives b) nounsc) verbs d) adverbs e) pronouns f) conjunctions g) determiners h) prepositions i) numerals J) interjection 1. Join word, phrases and clause together. They may be coordinating and subordinating. 2. further modify verbs telling us when, where or why something happened. . Dynamic, finite, modal, transitive are used to describe substitute nouns and may be indefinite, personal, proper, possessive, universal, relative, reflexive. 5. Collective, mass, proper, countable, nominative are terms used to describe . 6. Articles alan and the are also known as primary Attributive, predicative, superlative, classifying all refer to . 8. Words that connect two units of a sentence together to show relationship often carrying the eaning connected to the place or time are approximatives, decimals, fractions are all classes of . . Ordinal, cardinal, . 10. A short exclamation sometimes inserted into a sentence such as Ouch! Oh! or well! is known Vlldentify parts of speech in the following text / sentences: The bridge Ten days after the war ended, my sister Laura drove a car Offa bridge. The bridge was being repaired: she went right through the Danger sign. The car fell a hundred feet into the ravine, smashing through the treetops feathery with new leaves, then bridge fell on top of it. Nothing much was left of her but charred smithereens.
Taken from: The Blind Assassin by Margaret Atwood 1. Having lost his parents and feeling afraid of spending the night in the wood, the terrified boy wished somebody would come along the path and take him to safety. 2. Having been left a widow for the second time with three young children to support, Lady Robinson, although at the age of only twenty-five, knew that she would need to show a great deal of determination, if that large estate of her husband’s was to remain hers, since many had tried to claim it before.