Forging Theory

Hot working range and effects temperature and 1 . Near ICC metal strength decreases and plasticity increases until at lowest temperature where the lowest melting constituent of steel starts to melt. The strength decreases and looses plasticity and tint to crumble under applied stress instead of flow. 2. Selection of temperature depends on a) Chemistry. B) Melting point of the lowest constituent. 3. Finishing temperatures. Lower the finishing temperature finer the structure of the piece but limited to mass and shape. The finishing temperature should be near the lower transformation mint.

D=K at – C Time, K,C = constants D= thickness. Paste, The constant C is determined by the degree of super heat K by size of casting and how fast heat can be extracted by the mould. Variables affecting the start and end of freezing 1. The solidification range of the alloy. 2. Thermal characteristics of the mould. 3. Conductivity of the solidifying metal. 4. Temperature level of solidification. 1 . Metal composition with relation to freezing. 2. Super heat. 4. Surface tension. 5. Surface oxide films. 6. Absorbed gas films. 7. Suspended inclusions. 8. Inclusions precipitating during freezing.

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Length of stroke fixed by the throw of the crank or eccentric. Easily adjusted and controlled in a desired way 03 Speed limited by the type of drive. Adjustable over a range. Over load can be overloaded resulting in damage if not equipped with overload protection. Cannot be overloaded delivers only a preset force. 05 Fast news better good. Energy stores in the flywheel motor 07 usefulness in bland king or pier icing good Feeding Castings 1 . Gating systems a) Drum spurs b) Spurs base c) Runner d) ingrate Fluid Flow: Reynolds number Run �Mean Velocity of flow * did of tube *density of lice

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