Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development that would normally be expected in children and young people from birth – 19 years By McLaughlin unit Title MUM 5. 2 Assessment Criteria 1. 1 Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development that would normally be expected in children and young people from birth – 19 years.
Physical development is the increase in size which takes place as a child develops. It is the way the body increases in skill and becomes more complex in its performance. Whole body movements are described as gross motor skills and fine motor skills are he use of hands in co-ordination with the eyes to perform very delicate procedures with their fingers, with the eyes influencing the precise movements of the fingers.
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Physical development (gross motor) O – 19 years At birth – Reflex actions are: Child has rooting, sucking, and swallowing reflexes Child has grasping reflex If pulled to sit up, child’s head falls backwards If held in sitting position, child’s head falls forward Child laying on their back their limbs is bent Child laying on their front lies in a fetal position with knees tucked up. Child is unable to raise head or stretch limbs. At 1 month Child lying on tummy, lifts chin Child lying on back, head moves to one side Child’s arm and leg extended on face side Child begins to flex upper and lower limbs unit Title MUM. Held sitting, child keeps head straight, back and neck firm. Child’s lower back is still weak. When child is lying, pelvis is flat At 6 months Child on their back can lift head and shoulders Child on their tummy can rise up on hands Child sits with support Child kicks strongly and may roll over from tummy to back / back to tummy When held, child enjoys standing and Jumping Child will brings feet to mouth when on back At 9 months Child will sit unsupported and begins to crawl
Child will pull them up to stand, falls back with bump At 1 year Child walks holding 1 hand may walk alone Child bends down and picks up objects Child pulls to stand and sits deliberately At 15 months Child walking is usually well established Child can crawl up stairs frontward’s and down stairs backwards Child kneels unaided Child has poor balance, falls heavily At 18 months Child can climb up and down stairs with hand held and runs carefully Child pushes, pulls and carries large toys Child can sit into a small chair and can squat to pick up toys At 2 years each step while holding the wall/rail Child squats with ease and rises without using ands Child can climb up on furniture and get down again Child will steer a tricycle pushing along with their feet Child can throw a small ball overran, and kick a large ball At 3 years Child has competent locomotive skills Child can Jump off lower steps Child still uses two feet to a step coming down stairs Child pedals and steers tricycle At 4 years Child’s motor muscles are well controlled Child can turn sharp corners when running Child hops on favored foot and balances for three increased skill at ball games Child sits with knees crossed At 5 years – five seconds Child has Child can touch their toes keeping their legs straight Child can hop on either foot and can skip Child runs on their toes Child’s ball skills are developing well Child can walk along a thin line At 6 years Child Jumps over stick of approve. CM high Child learning to skip with rope At 7 years At 8 – 13 years Child’s physical skills are developing and improving and their body strength will have increased along with balance and co-ordination At 13- 19 years Teenagers become much stronger and develop gross motor skills through a wide range of sports. Between childhood and adulthood is referred to as adolescence. Physical development at this stage is very different for each individual. As some may be Just beginning to mature physically others may have already reached full physical maturity. Boys normally begin adolescence at around 14 years of age which is sometimes later than most girls. When they have reached the end of this growth period however they are usually bigger than girls. Their body shape will change as their muscles grow and they will develop body hair. Their strength and co-ordination will increase greatly and their voice will change to become deeper.
In the early stages of puberty testicles and scrotum will begin to grow and penis growth will start later but will continue for longer. Girl’s breasts will begin to swell from around the age of 10/11 years and continue throughout adolescence. They will develop hair in their pubic region and their body shape will change to become more rounded and curvy. Some girls may physically mature by the age of 15 years and nearly all girls will be at their full adult height at this age. Some girls will continue to develop larger breasts and a fuller figure. This is dependent on the age at which a girl begins puberty. There can be a huge variation for this happening, ranging from the age of 8 years to late teens. The average for girls to begin menstruation is around 13 years.
Physical development – (fine motor) O – 19 years At birth – reflex actions are: A baby’s pupils will react to light and will open their eyes when held upright A baby will blink or open their eyes wide to sudden sound and will give a startled reaction to sudden sound A baby’s eyes will close to sudden bright light 1 month A baby’s hands are fisted and their eyes move to dangling objects months A baby will grasp an object when placed in their hand and turn their head right round to look at objects A baby’s eye contact is firmly established 6 months A baby has learned to grasp objects and passes toys from hand to hand A baby’s usual sense is well established and they will follow objects with eyes without moving their head 9 months A baby is visually attentive and looks for fallen objects A baby will grasp with thumb and index finger and hold their bottle/cup A baby releases a toy by dropping it A baby is beginning to finger-feed 1 year A child picks up small objects, has a fine pincer grip and holds a spoon Child will point at objects unit Title 5. 2 15 months Child can build a tower of two blocks and turns pages off book Child can place objects precisely where they want them Child can use their spoon which sometimes rotates in their hand 18 months
Child can build a tower of three blocks without them falling Child will scribble to and fro spontaneously on any surface Child begins to show preference for one hand and can drink without spilling 2 years Child can turn the pages off book one at a time Child can build a tower of six blocks without falling Child holds pencil with first two fingers and thumb near to point 3 years Child can cut paper with scissors and builds a tower of nine blocks and a bridge with 3 blocks Child has good pencil control and can thread 3 large beads on a string 4 years Child builds a tower of 10 blocks and when shown, uses six blocks to build three tepees 5 years Child can thread large needle and sews Child will color pictures carefully and can copy adult writing and print their own name They can draw a picture of at least 3 objects and cut with a knife 6 years Child ties own shoe laces and dresses / undresses without any help Child can print 14-25 letters per minute 7 years precision in all areas 8 years onwards Young adolescence’s fine motor skills will have improved as well as their concentration which enables them to perform more complex tasks. Some children may have developed a talent for music and play a musical instrument such as piano, ARP or violin Social, emotional and behavioral development O – arrears Social development is the growth of a child’s relationships with others. Solicitation is the process by which children learn the culture or way of life of the society into which they are born. It is learning the skills of living in society. Emotional development is the growth of children’s feelings about them and about an awareness of themselves. It is the development of a child’s identity and self-image and also their feelings towards other people.
Behavioral development is acting or reacting in a specific way. It is what we exhibit o others. It includes all that we do and say, both good and bad. Behavior is socially and culturally defined. At birth Bonding / attachment with mother A baby watches mother’s face with increasingly alert facial expression Baby may give a fleeting smile – may be wind of course 3 months A baby reacts with pleasure (smiling/cooing) to familiar situations / routines Baby puts everything in mouth and responds to different tones Unit Title MUM. 2 Baby plays peek-a-boo (may start earlier) and imitates hand-clapping Baby clings to familiar adults, and is reluctant to go to strangers from about 7 moths
Child co-operates in dressing, will demonstrate affection and participates in nursery rhymes A child will wave goodbye Child will let you know when wet or soiled and helps with dressing A child is emotionally dependent on a familiar adult A child tries to sing and imitates what they see in the home A child’s bowel control is sometimes attained Child alternates between clinging and resistance and plays contentedly alone near familiar adult A child competently spoon feeds themselves and drinks from a cup They love to be in an outside environment but are unaware of dangers A child is ware of their physical needs and can put on shoes and hat A child demands their chief career’s attention and is often clingy A child will throw a tantrum if frustrated and enjoys parallel play Child uses spoon and fork and has increased independence in self-care A child can be dry night and day They are affectionate and usually co-operative They play co-operatively, particularly domestic play and try to please Children can be boastful and bossy with a sense of humor developing