Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development from birth -19 1. 1 years Children’s development for each age can be divided into fiver different aspects: Physical; Communication and Language; Intellectual and Cognitive; Social, Emotional and Behavioural and, from the age of 3 years Moral Development. Birth – 3 weeks Full term babies are born at around 40 weeks; if they are born more than 3 weeks before the due date they are classed as premature and will then be expected to take a little longer to meet the early development milestones. Newborn babies need to bond with their primary carers from birth.
Babies will spend more time sleeping than they will awake. Physical Development: At birth babies depend on reflexes such as rooting, grasping and suckling to enable them to feed or grasp. Physical development at this stage is usually very rapid. Communication and Language Development: They will cry to communicate hunger, tiredness and distress Intellectual/Cognitive Development: They can recognise their mother’s or primary carer’s voice Social, Emotional and Behavioural Development: They begin to bond with their primary carers, they need close physical contact with them to feel secure.
They are totally dependent on others. 1 Month frequently and may be settling into a feeding and sleeping routine. They might begin to communicate with sounds as well as crying and may be beginning to smile. When sitting the head falls forwards (head lag) and the back curves. Reflexes persist but the startle reflex is seen less frequently. They will gaze attentively at faces especially when fed and talked to. Although still communicating needs by crying will begin to use other sounds and to coo and gurgle in response.
They may be soothed by familiar voices or music and are beginning to use their senses for exploration They begin to smile, respond to sounds and to be engaged by peoples’ faces. 3 Months Babies will usually by now be far more alert and some may have settled into a routine that includes sleeping through the night. Physical Development: By 3 months they can usually turn from side to back, lift their head in the prone position arms and legs can wave and kick and hold objects such as a rattle for short periods of time.
They can usually recognise and link familiar sounds, respond to conversation with sounds and return smiles By using their senses babys are becoming aware that they are a separate person. They also begin to notice objects in their vicinity. understand that the person will come back. They react positively when a carer is caring kind and soothing but may stop trying to interact if the carer does not react to him or her. 6 Months Rapid development will have continued.
Babies are physically stronger and very alert. They can now express enjoyment and excitement though noises and facial expressions. They can also reach out for objects they are interested in At 6 months they can usually turn from front to back, sit unsupported with the head controlled while sitting; bear weight when held in the standing position, and will use palmar grasp to pick up objects which they can then pass from hand to hand.. Sounds are used intentionally to attract a carer’s attention.
They can babble and enjoy the sounds they make as well as music and rhymes They are very alert and interested in bright, shiny objects which they will put in their mouths to explore They are able to express a wider range of feelings more clearly and vocally, they can laugh with delight but cry at the sight of a stranger. They can clearly tell people apart and express a preference for those they are familiar with. They reach out to be eld and may stop crying when talked to, They like to look at themselves in the mirror. Months Babies are much more mobile at this stage and can explore their environment. Their increased strength means they can sit for longer. They begin to understand some familiar words and that carers who leave the room will return (object permanence) be crawling, pull themselves to standing and take steps with support and uses an inferior pincer grasp to pick up objects. They can use a wider range of sounds and recognise familiar words such as ‘no’ and their own name. They enjoy conversations and respond with longer strings or abbling sounds and can vary the volume of those sounds intentionally.
They enjoy exploring their environment and begin to look for fallen objects (object permanence) They enjoy playing games such as ‘peek-a-boff, they will offer objects but not let go. They can begin to feed themselves, with support 12 Months Babies have much increased mobility and are beginning to walk. Fine motor skills such as the pincer grasp are developing. Babbling will gradually turn into their first recognisable words. By age one; they have much more control over their bodies. They may be crawling or tarting to walk. They can usually throw objects, clap hands together use a sophisticated pincer grasp and begin to feed themselves.
They will have a greater understanding of the basic messages communicated by others and can respond to basic instructions. Babbling increasingly sounds like speech and leads to the first single words being spoken They look for objects that fall out of sight, understanding that they still exists. Their memory develops and the memory of events past will lead to the anticipation of Their sense of self identity increases and self-esteem and self-confidence develop. They wave goodbye when prompted initially then eventually will do it spontaneously. They are happy to play alone or with other children for increasing amounts of time. 5 Months Language is really developing and children understand and use an increasing number of single words. At 15 months they can usually walk independently, crawl up and down (feet first) stairs, turn the pages of a book, make a tower of 2 blocks and hold a beaker when drinking. rto crawl, shuffle, pulling or pushing on things to stand etc. They will have a greater understanding of the concept of labels such as you’ ‘me’ ‘mine’ yours’. Vocabulary of single words is increasing They will put away and look for familiar objects in the right place.
They will play with toys correctly e. g. put a doll in a cot and are becoming more interested in the activities of other children. They are becoming more curious and want to explore more as long as carers are close by. They may show signs of separation anxiety e. g. become upset when left at nursery. They may ‘show off to entertain carers. They may become possessive of toys or carers and can become Jealous if attention is given to other children. They can be very changeable emotionally and alternate between wanting to be ndependent and wanting carers around.
They may have tantrums. They can be distracted from inappropriate behaviour 18 Months Children are becoming increasingly independent and become easily frustrated if become defiant and resistant to adults. They are not yet able to control their emotions and can become overwhelmed by their emotions. By 18 months they are usually walking confidently, walking up and down stairs with assistance, propelling themselves on ride-on toys, rolling and throwing balls, using a delicate pincer grasp, making large scribbles with crayons and can use door handles.
They will understand a lot of what is said and are using more words themselves including peoples’ names They will use trial and error in exploration. They have a better understanding of what it means to be an individual. They are very curious and eager to explore. They can become quickly frustrated if unable to do what they want. They like to follow carers and Join in with their activities. They play alongside their peers for longer (parallel play)and may imitate them. They can be emotionally volatile but start to show sympathy for others. Years Children’s’ individuality is emerging. They are using short sentences. They are still struggling with their overwhelming emotions but are beginning to understand that actions have consequences. By the age of 2 children will usually be running confidently, climbing, walking up and down stairs alone, kicking balls, building towers with more blocks, Joining and separating interlocking toys and mark making on paper will progress to scribbles and then recognisable shapes. They will often name objects and use short sentences although some words may be used incorrectly e. g. l goed out” They can complete simple Jigsaw puzzles and can understand that actions have consequences. They are beginning to understand their own emotions and can identify happy and sad faces. They are still experiencing a wide range of very changeable emotions which is expressed in their behaviour; they can become angry with other children and lash out, pushing or biting them. They are becoming more aware and responsive to other peoples’ emotions. They respond to carers lovingly and may initiate loving gestures such as cuddles. 3 Years As children are able to express themselves more verbally tantrums will decrease.
Many children will be starting pre-school and they are becoming more interested in he activities of others and playing with their peers as they are more able to understand taking turns and sharing. At 3 years children begin to gain more independence. Their mobility and climbing skills will be advancing as they run, Jump, catch, walk up and down stairs. Dexterity increases with small objects like puzzles, threading beads. Dressing and undressing will be assisted but more cooperative. They will have more pencil control and will begin to copy letters and shapes, and draw people.
Ball games will develop more structure as they begin to kick with aim. They will begin to learn to hop on one foot, hen the other and also to skip. They enjoy stories and rhymes. Their vocabulary develops and they will use plurals, pronouns, adjectives, possessives and tenses. can name colours and sort items into simple sets. They can count 3 or 4 objects and may be able to count to ten by rote. They begin to recognise their own written name. They play imaginatively and creatively. They can tell carers how they are feeling and empathise with the feelings of others.
They can use the toilet and wash their hands. They can dress and undress. They enjoy imaginary and creative play. They enjoy the company of peers and make friends. They want adult approval and will be affected by the mood of carers. They are usually less rebellious and less likely to physically express anger. Moral Development: They are increasingly able to understand the consequences of behaviour and also to understand the concept of ‘saying sorry. 4 years Many children will start school during this year. By now they are usually fluent talkers, confident movers and adept socially.
Their concentration span will be increasing and many children will be familiar with planned learning activities. They can change direction while running, walk in a straight line, hop safely and onfidently climb and slide on apparatus. They can bounce and catch balls and take aim. They can build a tower of 10 blocks. They are learning to fasten most buttons and zips, to use scissors to cut basic shapes, draw people with basic heads, bodies and limbs and write names and letters. They can usually speak fluently and can be understood by people who do not know the child.
As language is understood more deeply so the enjoyment of stories and rhymes increases. They can usually complete puzzles of up to 12 pieces. As memory increases children will remember more stories and songs. Concentration span increases. Fantasy and making skills. Objects and items can be sorted into more complex group and their understanding of number concepts increases. They may be aware of gender roles, if exposed to them. Friendship with peers is increasingly valued, and they enjoy playing with other children. Their control over their emotions increases and they can wait to have their needs met by their carers.
As the child’s imagination increases they may become more fearful of abstract/ imaginary concepts such as the dark or monsters. They are learning to negotiate and get along with others through experimenting with behaviour. Distraction works less often but the child increasingly understands reasoning and they respond well to praise for behaviour, encouragement and responsibility. They experience being blamed and blaming; have a good understanding of familiar basic rules and if they are exposed to swearing are likely to use these words in their own language. Years Children will now be in formal education many will enjoy the stimulation and challenges but some may find it a negative experience especially if they do not enjoy reading and writing. Friends are very important to them. Physical development slows down but coordination increases. Their balance is usually good, they can control a ball well and ride a bike with stabilisers. As their sense of rhythm increases they enjoy dance and movement activities. Writing becomes more legible, they can usually write short, familiar words.
They are learning to read and their vocabulary is increasing, generally most children will know over 2000 words. as they learn to read their enjoyment of books increases. Their thinking skills and memory increase as vocabulary grows. Learning style preferences may become apparent. For some children the school transition may be unsettling. They enjoy group play nd co-operative activities and they increasingly understand the rules of social conduct and rules of games although they may have difficulty accepting losing. They have an increasing sense of their own personality and gender.
They are keen to fit- in’ with others and look for approval from adults and peers and time out’ methods of behaviour management may be effective . They are far more independent and can mostly look after their own physical care needs. They may seek attention ‘showing off in front of adults and peers. They will feel shame/guilt when an adult disapproves of their behaviour. They are keen to win and to be right. -7 years Children are strongly influenced by what they learn at school and can increasingly compare this with what they learn at home.
Development slows down now but confidence and learning usually increase. They can usually hop on either leg, ride a bicycle without stabilisers, catch a ball in 1 hand and may be able to tie shoelaces. Language is more refined and they enjoy Jokes and word play. Imagination skills are developed; they may play complex, dramatic fantasy games. Some children will be reading and writing basic text. They are able to predict and plan ahead. Their numeracy skills develop they can usually understand simple