Comparison of Indian and Japanese cuisines

Comparison of Indian and Japanese cuisines

Index Page no Content 5-12 Comparison and contrast of characteristics of both the cuisines 13-16 Discussion of influences on both the cuisines 17-18 Discussion the definition of multi-cultural work nature of food and drink 19-20 Food trends 2011 vs 2012 Overview Wasabi is a sushi bar serving only sushi in Phoenix Mall in Vlman Nagar, Pune. It serves authentic, traditional sushi. Wasabi is Just 6 months old. Initially, there was great response for sushi but now sales are dipping down.

One of the main reason is acceptability of sushi in its authentic form since many of the guest comment cards nsist they would like to have sushi with Indian tough to it. Owners of this restaurant are thinking of rebranding the restaurant that would offer sushi with Indian taste to it. This concept aims at providing Indian and Japanese Fusion Cuisine keeping in line with latest food trends in the market. I am currently working as Chef-De-partie in Wasabi and report to the Executive Chef who is Japanese.

The Executive Chef has given me the responsibility to research the commercial feasibility of the fusion sushi and I am to assist him with the same. Background of ‘sushi’: The original type of sushi, known today as ‘nare-zushi’ was first developed in Southeast Asia before introduction to Japan. Sushi literally means “sour-tasting”. The oldest form of sushi in Japan, ‘narezushi’ still very closely resembles this process, wherein fish is fermented via being wrapped in soured fermenting rice which results in a sour taste.

In Japan, ‘narezushi’ evolved into ‘oshizushi’ and ultimately ‘Edomae nigirizushi’, which is what the world today, knows as “sushi”. (Asian artmall, 2006) Contemporary Japanese sushi has little resemblance to the traditional lacto- fermented rice dish. Originally, when the fermented fish was taken out of the rice, only the fish was consumed and the fermented rice was discarded. As sushi evolved, vinegar was started to be added to the mixture for better taste and preservation.

The vinegar amplified the rice’s sourness and was known to increase its shelf life, allowing the fermentation process to be shortened and eventually abandoned. The contemporary version, internationally known as “sushi”, was created by Hanaya Yohei (1799-1858). (Asian artmall, 2006) Today sushi has become a delicacy in Japan and is considered one of the most prestigious food items to be served. The increasing popularity of sushi has resulted in various variations all round the world. With Indian style food in the backdrop, how sushi can be served to the Viman Nagar’s masses so that it appeals them forms the crust of the assignment. . 1 Compare and contrast the characteristics of Indian and Japanese cuisines Both the Indian and Japanese cuisines have come a long way in terms of their evolution from the conventional era to the contemporary period. How both these cuisines differentiate is being discussed based on the following parameters: Conventional menu structures Japanese cuisine: A typical Japanese meal basically has four components: rice, a soup, the main dish, and pickles. Rice is the staple component and lies at the core of Japanese food culture.

Soup is usually sipped slowly throughout a meal. (Ghildiyal, 2010) Indian Cuisine: Whereas Indian meal compromises of roti (bread), a vegetable/meat preparation (dry preparation or gravvy), a rice preparation which is generally plain rice accompanied with a dal-based curry-like preparation. (Ghildiyal, 2010) Course structures The standard traditional Japanese meal, “IchiJu-sansai” meaning “one soup, three ides” consists of soup, rice, pickles and three dishes or accompaniments is meant to be eaten all together and served all at once.

Therefore the diners wait till all the dishes are assembled at the table and then eat from their individual bowls of rice, adding soup, pickles and condiments to taste and alternating with morsels of accompaniments. (webmd, 2006) Indian Cuisine: However, in case of Indian meals, the vegetable preparation and roti (bread) are generally served first. After the diner is satisfied with this course he is then served rice along with the dal-based curry. The diner mixes the curry along with the rice and can eat it along with the vegetable preparation. webmd, 2006) Eating habits Japanese Cuisine: Up until maybe 50 years ago most people ate soup and rice three meal day and occasionally ate dried, salted or fermented dish The characteristic way of eating Japanese cuisine is to alternate between eating the rice, soup and side dishes. (Mcwilliams, 2012) A traditional meal is served with rice, vegetables and miso (fermented soy bean paste) soup and fruit is often eaten as desert. Many dishes come with soy sauce or wasabi (very hot mustard-like green horseradish). Many urban Japanese have adopted the American way of eating??”a big breakfast, light lunch, and a big dinner.

Miso soup and rice are a dietary base, often eaten for breakfast, lunch, and dinner. Breakfast (asa-gohan) generally consists of Juice, coffee, eggs and toast or rice. A typical breakfast consists of rice, miso soup, spinach and egg. Most people eat breakfast at home. It’s hard to find a restaurant that serves breakfast. Many coffee ships have a set breakfast with a drink, toast, boiled egg and light food. On the weekends people eat pancakes or a traditional breakfast of miso oup, rice, egg, vegetable and fish.

Lunch (hiru-gohan) is generally eaten by many people out due to work, grabbing a quick meal or snack such as a bowl of noodles, sandwiches, rice balls or even Chinese food. Dinner (ban-gohan) is generally an informal meal with meat or fish, rice and miso soup. Main dishes made at home, include thing things like curry rice, pork cutlets, meatloaf-like hamburgers, fried fish, stir fried chicken or pork dishes, and dishes made with tofu. Fancier dinners include some of the items listed below. Japanese often drink nothing with their meals; Miso soup often serves the purpose of a drink.

Sometimes beer, wine, hot tea, cold tea, water or other drinks are served with their meals. An evening snack of fruit is commonly eaten. The accompaniments in Japanese food are generally pickled vegetables where vegetables are soaked in a mixture of vinegar and sugar. Indian The breakfast could be anything ranging from poorl (deep-fried fluffy Indian bread) and chole(chick- peas with tomato), idli ( a savory cake) and sambhar ( a lentil based dish) , poha (a rice preparation), paratha ( a flat Indian bread usually stuffed with different vegetables such as potatoes , spinach etc. nd many more. There is no restriction or generalization of what an individual could have in the breakfast in the morning. Most people however prefer a hot cup of tea or coffee in the morning. (Mcwilliams, 2012) The afternoon lunch is either home-packed (dabba) or is had in the canteens by the working class. The lunch includes the typical roti(bread), vegetable preparation, rice and dal-based curry with a sweet occasionally. Evening breakfast is generally lighter than the morning breakfast and is generally accompanied with a hot cup of tea or a coffee.

The dinner is the same as afternoon unch including the typical roti(bread), vegetable preparation, rice and dal-based curry with a sweet occasionally. The accompaniments in Indian food generally include sliced onions, lemons, pickles (mango, lemon) and sometimes salads. Characteristics of food Japanese cuisine is mostly seafood-based and generally it doesn’t have the thick spicy curries and gravies associated with Indian food. Though Japan accounts for only 2% of the world’s population, its people eat 10% of the world’s fish.

The flipside of Japan’s fish craze means the Japanese eat less red meat. The Japanese diet includes huge amounts of rice. The main unique characteristic of rice which is grown in Japan is that it is more glutinous as compared to rice grown in India. When such type of rice is pounded it results in a sticky rice paste. This paste is shaped into cakes that can be grilled or perhaps wrapped in seaweed. Soups are also an integral part of Japanese cuisine and most of the soups are clear soups. They are also an integral part of Japanese breakfast.

Red bell peppers, green beans, zucchini, eggplant, onions, burdock, tomatoes, green peppers, lettuce, carrots, spinach, bamboo shoots, beets, lotus root, turnips, daikon (or giant white radish), shiitake mushrooms, sweet otatoes, and seaweed (or sea vegetables), such as kombu, nor’, and wakame all have a place in the Japanese diet. As many as four or five different varieties are served in a single meal and no one thinks it odd to have vegetable soup or a salad for breakfast. A typical Japanese dessert is an assortment of seasonal fruits, peeled, sliced, and arranged on a pretty plate.

People do enjoy Western desserts like ice cream and cakes, but they’re usually offered in smaller portions and subtler flavors compared to the West. A cup of Japanese green tea is the perfect end to any meal. (Mcwilliams, 2012) Indian cuisine: The Indian cuisine is mostly spices-based which is intended to produce flavorful food consisting of whole or powdered chilli pepper (mirch), black mustard seed (sarso), cardamom (elaichi), cumin Oeera), turmeric (haldi), asafoetida (hing), ginger (a drak), coriander (dhania), and garlic (lehsun).

One popular spice mix is garam masala, a powder that typically includes five or more dried spices, including cardamom, clove and cinnamon. Most of the food is vegetarian-based. Therefore a wide variety of vegetables are used in Indian preparations perhaps more than the Japanese cuisine. All Indian breads are flat. Most common is called Roti made with whole grain wheat flour. The diet of most of the people is based on the regional topography i. e people near the coastal region have seafood-based diet, people in North-India have more of a meat-based diet.

Cooking methods To enjoy the fresh taste of seasonal products, Japanese cooking time for roasting and broiling is kept relatively short. (Kumakura, 2009) Indian cuisine: However, in Indian cooking, most of the curries involve the ‘bhunao’ process, where any vegetable or meat is continually saut?©ed and stir fried in onions, tomatoes, ginger, garlic, green chilies, and oil. Way of eating Japanese, traditionally, use chopsticks which are short, frequently tapered sticks used in pairs of equal length as eating utensils for noodles, rice and other preparations Also they don’t use spoons to drink their soup but directly sip it from the bowls.

Making sounds while sipping soup is not considered rude in their culture. On the contrary, it represents that one is enjoying the food served to him/her. (Kumakura, 2009) Indian cuisine: Indians generally prefer hands when having roti( bread) along with the vegetable preparation. Proper scooping technique involves making a boat-like shape with the oti, scooping up the curry without letting too much of the curry touch our fingers, and inserting the food into our mouth before anything spills out. Spoons could be used while consuming rice.

List of condiments used A handful of Japanese condiments are available to personalise flavours. Wasabi is the pale green powdered root of the Japanese horseradish plant is used to garnish Sushi and add pungency (like Mustard or Mooli but with far more impact) to homemade dressings or sauces. Karashi is mustard, hotter than it’s western counterpart and used as a garnish or added to dressings and sauces. Shichimi or Ichimi Togarashi are Japanese chili powders used for sprinkling over noodles, miso soup, and stir-fried vegetables.

Ichimi means one taste and consists of only Japanese chili pepper while Shichimi means seven tastes, and contains seven spices that include chilli, black sesame seeds, poppy seeds and hemp seeds among others. Sesame seeds, sesame oil, Gomashio (sesame salt), Furikake, Walnuts, Peanuts, red pepper, ginger, shiso (a flavourful herb), sansho (Sichuan peppercorn), citrus peel, Mitsuba (a fresh herb) and Monosodium Glutamate are other ingredients used in cooking or as table condiments. Kumakura, 2009) Indian cuisine: Spices are the very soul of Indian cuisine. They form the foundation of the cuisine that has existed for centuries.

It is virtually impossible to cook any Indian dish without spices, even if they are only red chillies and salt. Bay leaves (teJ patta): An aromatic herb used for flavouring vegetables and meat. Black peppercorns (sabut kali mirch): A pungent aromatic condiment. Cardamoms (elaichi): One of the world’s most expensive spices, there are two varieties -the large, black-brown ones, which have a heavier favour and the small green ones which are aromatic and have a delicate lavour Carom seeds (aJwain): Also known as thymol or omum; used in pickles and vegetable dishes.

Chilli and chilli powder: There are at least 20 known varieties of chilli powders. The range of chillies can be from white and yellow to saffron and red in colour While capsicums or peppers are mild and flavoured, Goan chillies are dark red in colour and not pungent. Green chillies are similar to fresh red chillies and their seeds are the most pungent. Red Kashmiri chillies are very mild and can be used for colouring and flavouring. Cinnamon (dalchini): Most Indian food is cooked with cassia bark, which is a good substitute for real cinnamon. However it does not have the delicate flavour of cinnamon as its flavour is much stronger. Ghildiyal, 2010) Cloves (bung): Cloves are the dried flower buds of an evergreen plant. The oil of cloves contains phenol, which is a good antiseptic and helps in preserving food. Coriander (dhaniya) seeds: Coriander seed powder is a very important spice in Indian food. Fresh coriander leaves are used for garnishing. Coriander has a strong, pungent smell but is almost indispensable to Indian cuisine. Cumin Oeera) seeds: Cumin seeds come in two varieties: white and black. The white variety is the more ommon one and is used as extensively as coriander seed powder while the black variety is more aromatic and peppery.

Curry leaves (kadhi patta): These impart a subtle flavour when fried until they are crisp. They are popular in South Indian dishes. Fennel (moti saunf) seeds: Fennel seeds are a common ingredient for flavouring stocks, sauces, and curries. Used extensively as an ingredient in paan and as an effective digestive. Fenugreek seeds (methi dana): Fenugreek seeds are square, flat and yellowish-brown in colour Care must be taken in using the seeds as they are bitter and the quantity used must be controlled. Mace Oavitri): Mace is a part of the nutmeg. It is the shell of the nutmeg kernel.

It has a flavour similar to nutmeg, but Is more delicate and is used in rice dishes. Mustard seeds (raJ):Tiny, dark, round seeds used for tempering in dais and pickles. Nutmeg Oaiphal): This is used to make fragrant garam masala. The kernel must be finely grated Just before use. Excessive use must be avoided as it can be poisonous. Onion seeds (kalonJi): Sprinkled over Indian breads and used in cooking vegetables. Pomegranate seeds (anar dana): Used in making savouries, and for giving a sour flavour. Poppy (khuskhus) seeds: White oppy seeds, roasted and ground, are used to provide a nutty flavour and to thicken gravies.

Saffron (kesar): The world’s most expensive spice, saffron must be soaked in either warm milk or water and used at the end of cooking a dish. Tamarind (imli): The bitter-sweet, highly acidic pulp of the tamarind is used to flavour foods, and is a good source of iron, potassium and magnesium. Turmeric (haldi): Turmeric is a rhizome of the ginger family. (Ghildiyal, 2010) Portion control: Japanese portion sizes are small as compared to Indian cuisine. Indian cuisines: Indian portion sizes vary from region to region but are comparatively more as ompared to Japanese cuisines.

The above differences can be summarized by the following table: Japanese Cuisine Indian Cuisine Conventional menu structure Four basic components: rice, a soup, the main dish, and pickles Four basic components: roti, vegetable/meat based preparation, rice, and dal-based curry Course structure All dishes are served once Roti and vegetable/ meat preparation first and then rice with dal-based curry Eating habits Food consumed during breakfast, lunch and dinner is different as compared to Indian cuisine. Also, accompaniments are different Food consumed during breakfast, unch and dinner is different as compared to Indian cuisine.

Also, accompaniments are different Characteristics Sea-food based Inclusion of huge amounts of rice Soups integral part of meal Inclusion of wide variety of vegetables Extensive uses of spices Curry and gravy-based Inclusion of breads Diet varies from region to region unlike Japan Inclusion of wider variety of vegetables Cooking method Relatively shorter amount of time taken for roasting and boiling ‘Bhunao’ process is used extensively Way of eating Chopsticks used as holding utensils, soups are sipped directly from bowl Hands are used directly to handle food while eating. Spoons used occasionally.

Condiments used Wasabi, Karashi, shichimi, sesame seeds and oil, sansho, furikake etc Cinnamon, cardramom, bay-leaves, cumin, coriander, mace etc. Now let us look at some of the similarities between the two cuisines: Extensive used of vegetables Both the cuisines involve wide use of variety of vegetables. In the Japanese cuisine, these vegetables are generally soaked and pickled and served as accompaniments along with the main dishes. In the Indian cuisine, the vegetables are saut?©ed or stir- fried to from thick curries or gravies or even dry preparations. Sharing of food

Both the cuisines give utmost importance to the hospitality aspect of service. In both the cuisines, food is served in common bowls and shared amongst those sitting on the dining table. Cooking ideologies Even though both the cuisines use different cooking methods, the ideology behind them is more or less the same. The Japanese believe in retaining the original natural flavor of any ingredient and therefore prefer to eat food which is not cooked thoroughly. Whereas, the Indians believe in using spices to incorporate their flavor into their food to make the final produce more flavorful.

Both the cuisines believe in aking use of freshest seasonal local produce. Presentation Both the cuisines believe in the concept of encouraging the diner to “eat with their eyes” by enjoying the beauty of their food. For example. The knife used to cut sashimi is a long knife beveled on one side. The sharpness of the edge and the slicing method involves pulling the knife on the fish, which does not damage the tissues, maintaining its umami (savouriness). Itamae (specialist chefs of Japanese cuisine) make the technique look easy, but it requires extensive training.

Sushi is similar, maintaining the tissue fluid in the slices of fish, so its taste in combination ith the sushi rice can be appreciated. Similarly, lots of India chefs now-a-days are paying a lot of attention to the creative and presentation aspect of food which is served to the guests so that it looks more eye-appealing and the guests can enjoy it more. 1. 2 Discuss influences in world cuisine Japanese cuisine 1. Geographical conditions Sea-food based cuisine Japan is a long island about 3,500 km in length from north-east to southwest, situated in the Pacific Ocean to the east of the Eurasian bloc.

The surrounding sea is a mixture of warm and cold streams, giving abundant varieties of fish. Beside the wide variety of fish that are available in the ocean, there are several types of fresh fish and edible planktons available locally in the rivers and lakes as well. Due to this large supply of fish, Japanese cuisine is sea-food based. (Kumakura, 2009) Inclusion of vegetables/ rice in cuisine The Japanese climate is characterized by warm monsoons, although the northern region is temperate and the southern islands subtropical.

As a result, distinct changes over four seasons are experienced, which has been an important factor in Japanese cuisine. There are two rainy seasons in Japan. One is in June (Tsuyu: “plum ain”) and the other is in September (Akisame: autumn rain). The annual rainfall averages 2,000 mm, so fresh water is abundant. This water provides benefits to Japanese agriculture, allowing cultivation of rice, vegetables and fruit. (Kumakura, 2009) 2. Eating habits Portion control The Japanese food dishes are generally served in smaller portions. They believe eating in moderation helps keep an individual healthy.

In Japan, food is served on separate small plates and bowls instead of on one big plate. Diners take turns having little tastes of everything. Japanese believe serving smaller portions is one of the best ecrets for eating healthfully and losing weight. Also, inclusion of nutritious foods like tofu, rice, vegetables and even fish which is believed to have anti-carcinogenic properties makes they believe that they follow a healthy diet. Also, the reason for this being that many Japanese like to enjoy different foods so that they can sample.

Rice for example is a staple in the diet, and they eat a small bowl full and then go back for more if wanted. The portions themselves are smaller; however the choices to pick and eat from can be huge during a meal. (Kumakura, 2009) 3. Religion Majority of people in Japan follow Buddhism. Because of the respect for life, Buddhists may abstain from eating meat and fish. However, these foods are not strictly forbidden and many dishes do contain some meat and fish. Rice is the staple of the diet and eating in moderation is encouraged by this religion. (Mcwilliams, 2012) 4.

Raw ingredients A primary characteristic of Japanese cuisine is the enjoyment of the raw taste of food, without using strongly flavored sauces. Japanese therefore keep the cooking time for roasting and broiling relatively short to enjoy the fresh taste of seasonal products and accompaniments are served in accordance to the main dish served. For ex. Shoyu (soy sauce) enhances the flavor of the raw fish. (Kumakura, 2009) 5. Lifestyle The country is geared towards an active lifestyle which centers around three key aspects: work, socializing and recreation.

Most of the people walk for 3-5 kms daily and therefore there is a need for high-carbohydrate diet to keep them energetic and fresh. This is the reason why they consume simple-carbs based diet like rice, noodles, soya etc. Indian cuisine Spices based cuisine, inclusion of wide variety of vegetables Indian cuisine uses a wide variety of spices in its food preparations. The spices are used to flavor the food, aking each dish distinct and aromatic. Each spice by itself imparts a very unique flavor, but when used together with other spices, the combination and permutation of different spices change the individual characteristics.

The extensive use of spices is because India has favorable climatic and soil conditions for growing spices and other semi-tropical herbs. Also, the fertile plains of a majority of rivers across India encourage agriculture in the early era and since then wide variety of vegetables are grown making it a national profession ever since. Therefore, the cuisine involves use f a wide variety of vegetables. No generalization of the cuisine Unlike the Japanese cuisine, the Indian cuisine cannot be generalized by any one characteristic.

Since India is a huge nation which is divided into different regions, culturally different cuisines have evolved in their own way in such parts. The multi- cuisine structure involves the following cuisines: (Muller, 2002) Bengali Food Bengali cuisine is appreciated for its fabulous use of panchphoron, a term used to refer to the five essential spices, namely mustard, fenugreek seed, cumin seed, aniseed, and black cumin seed. The specialty of Bengali food lies in the perfect blend of sweet and spicy flavors. Gujarati Food The traditional Gujarati food is primarily vegetarian and has a high nutritional value.

The typical Gujarati thali consists of varied kinds of lip smacking dishes. Gujarati cuisine has so much to offer and each dish has an absolutely different cooking style. Kashmiri Food Kashmiri food that we have today in the restaurants has evolved over the years. Highly influenced by the traditional food of the Kashmiri pundits, it has now taken some of the features of the cooking style adopted in Central Asia, Persia and Afghanistan. Mughlai Cuisine Mughlai cuisine is one of the most popular cuisines, whose origin can be traced back to the times of Mughal Empire.

Mughlai cuisine consists of the dishes that were prepared in the kitchens of the royal Mughal Emperors. Indian cuisine is predominantly influenced by the cooking style practiced during the Mughal era. Punjabi Food The cuisine of Punjab has an enormous variety of mouth-watering vegetarian as well as non vegetarian dishes. The spice content ranges from minimal to pleasant to high. Punjabi food is usually relished by people of all communities. In Punjab, home ooking differs from the restaurant cooking style. Rajasthan’ Food The cuisine of Rajasthan is primarily vegetarian and offers a fabulous variety of mouthwatering dishes.

The spice content is quite high in comparison to other Indian cuisines, but the food is absolutely scrumptious. Rajasthan’s use ghee for cooking most of the dishes. Rajasthani food is well known for its spicy curries and delicious sweets. South Indian Cuisine The cuisine of South India is known for its light, low calorie appetizing dishes. The traditional food of South India is mainly rice based. The cuisine is famous for its onderful mixing of rice and lentils to prepare yummy lip smacking dosas, vadas, idlis and uttapams. (Bali, 2010) 2.

Religion In spite of the cultural differences across India, majority of people follow Hinduism and Jainism. Both these religions strictly forbid consumption of any form of meat and therefore most of them are vegetarians. Cow is considered sacred and therefore beef is not consumed by these people. Avoidance of alcohol is observed by such people to avoid any possible loss of self-control Fasting may also be done at various times of the year during various celestial events and other special days. (Mcwilliams, 2012) However, in the last few years, people have broken free from their bondage of religious restrictions and started consuming meat.

The most common meat eaten in India is chicken because cattle-rearing has become easy and has huge potential from the commercial aspect. 3. Cooking methods As stated earlier, the main aim of Indian cuisine is to make the food flavorful and aromatic by incorporating the flavor of different spices and condiments in their preparations. As a result of this, ‘bhunao’ process is used which includes saut?©ing and stir-frying vegetables/ meat for a long period of time until the desired level of aroma and flavor is obtained.