Charlemagne: Review Notes BY layia4528 Unit 8 Charlemagne Why did Charlemagne distrust the pope’s motives in crowning Charlemagne as Holy Roman Emperor? – By crowning him emperor, the pope established the significant precedent that only the pope could confer the imperial crown. – He was worried about a conflict with the Byzantines. The Byzantine Empress Irene was rumored to have considered a marriage to Charlemagne, and his coronation as emperor, was seen as an insult to Byzantium.
How could Charlemagne create such a powerful empire? – Charlemagne mostly enlarged his empire through military conquest, most notably hrough a long and successful series of campaigns against the Saxons, and his conquest of Bavaria. From an administrative standpoint, he gave his authority increased underpinning by assisting the Pope against riotous Roman nobles and subjugating the Lombards, actions which earned him the title of Holy Roman Emperor.
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He adopted a system of standard weights and measures throughout his empire, including a new system of coinage. Charlemagne projected imperial authority by moving his court throughout the empire, and delegating administrative duties to local appointees known as counts. He communicated with these counts hrough messages sent by officials known as missi dominici. Additionally, he divided the empire into larger administrative regions run by governors. Finally, Charlemagne reformed the legal code, compiling Frankish laws with Roman laws. appointed counts to supervise local administration of Justice and raising armies. other administrators to supervise courts, and collect tolls and taxes sent reps throughout countryside to relay instructions and check up on admins Unit 9 Feudalism Why were the Crusades launched? – The Crusades were a series of military conflicts of a religious character waged by uch of Christian Europe during 1095-1291, most of which were sanctioned by the Pope in the name of Christendom.
The Crusades originally had the goal of recapturing Jerusalem and the sacred “Holy Land” from Muslim rule and were originally launched in response to a call from the Eastern Orthodox Byzantine Empire for help against the expansion of the Muslim Seljuk Turks into Anatolia. Why did feudalism develop after the fall of the Roman empire? – This came to be when everyone decided that there was going to be a high group and a low group.
Then people started to Just continue their lives as one rich and one poor and the poor ere treated like Unit 10 Early Middle Ages Why was the Magna Carta an important step in the political evolution of England in the Middle Ages? – The Magna Carta, signed in 1215 by King John, was an important step in because it took some power from the monarch and gave it to the people. An example of this would be that the monarch could no longer take someone’s land wltnout Just reason ana payment to tne person Tor tne land.
Because 0T tnls major step from traditional government, the Magna Carta is often regarded as the basis of Democracy. Never before had power been taken from the monarch and given to the eople. It was, however, still a far cry from the constitutional monarchy that Great Britain has today. What was Scholasticism? The theory and practice of reconciling various forms of knowledge through logical debate, often called dialetic. aused by educational revolution brought about by muslim learnings gathered during crusades, as well as learnings from monasteries Unit 1 1 Medieval Russia How did the Mongols affect the development of Russia? The Mongols conquered Russia and made them pay tribute to them. Through the Russians still governed themselves. The conquer of Russia is on the reasons Russia as led to isolation How did Muscovite Russia compare with other European states of the period? Muscovite Russia was a strongly communist state. It therefore was very different from such as France or Germany which were democratic states.
They held open elections. Unit 12 Late Middle Ages What caused the rise of national monarchies in the Middle Ages? – In France and Germany the national ruler often had a real lack of authority over ares out side there direct rule (duchie, counties etc) For example Normandy in France. Similarly in Britain the nobles forced the magna cartna. The feudal system meant that meant monarchs were limited as the nobles held lots of power. The diminshmet of the feudal system was cause by several factors including the plague.
This casued a hudge reduction in population this meant that people could demand more money etc for their labour which was in high demand due to the population reduction. This severly weakened the nobles power and meant that the Monarch could increase theirs. Also new religious ideas like ruling via devine right helped to validate their rule and control the population in fear of their soul. New ideas of protestantism also made them Monarch irectly rsponsible for the faith of the nation and power. Why was Joan of Arc burned at the stake? Heresy -she was a threat, a peasant leading aristocrats, a woman leading men, and a common claiming to be commissioned by god – Ultimately, they got her on cross dressing, even though they are the ones who made her put on pants. Joan was going on trial, but the guards guarding her had taken away her clothes, and wouldn’t give them back. they through some men’s clothes and gave her an ultimatum, put on the clothes for her trial or stay in Jail. As well, they were afraid at how powerful she ould and already had become, how adept she was at fighting wars, and of course some believed her to be a witch or crazy because she talked with God.
In the end Joan was accused of cross dressing for wearing her armor and tunics; however, the only reason why she kept these garments on was for if she were to wear a dress, the guards (who should have been Catholic nuns instead of English soldiers) would rape ner wnen sne was Tlnally Torcea to wear tne “proper Temale attlre” tne guards, along with an English Lord, increased their attempts to rape Joan, however they did not ucceed and gave her back male clothing which she was forbidden to wear.
When Joan did finally give in to the guards and put on the clothes she was immediately pronounced a “relapsed heretic” and condemned to death. Unit 13 Renaissance What was the role of the church in the Renaissance? The church played a big role in the Renaissance period. Virtually everyone was religious. And most “holidays” were also religious. Easter was actually a bigger celebration than Yuletide for most people. Part of this reason is because the month before Easter was “Lent”, in which people would confess for all the sins they ommitted over the last year.
It was a month long of weeping and wearing people. Part of this reason is because the month before Easter was “Lent”, in which people would confess for all the sins they committed over the last year. It was a month long of weeping and wearing rags and ashes and pleading for forgiveness. And many times they’d only eat stale bread and drink sour wine. They tried making themselves as miserable as possible during that month to prove to Godv how sorry they really were for their sins. The “church” was the main reason for many of the wars during the renaissance. Why did the Renaissance begin in Italy?
Italy had many competing political institutions, the most important of which based their claims on different sources of authority. Italians thus looked to the past, dreaming of a day when rome would again be the center of the world. -wanted national cultural identity that would oppose France’s -increased wealth through increasing commercial ventures meant that talented individuals were staying at home rather than venturing out for work Unit 14 Reformation Why did these reform movements succeed at this moment in time? ideas of Nat’l identity were already influential, and thus available for manipulation. increase in ower of Europe’s sovereign states- many embraced Protestantism out of desire for sovereignty -renaissance prompted closer study of the text of the Bible What was the impact of the Council of Trent on the Catholic church? -condemned protestantism -reformed catholic church -reaffirmed all the traditional tenets challenged by Protestant critics -papal supremacy over all bishops and priests maintained, and the supremacy of the pope over any church council taken for granted Unit 15 Final Exam How did the discovery of other world societies change Europe’s view of itself? What specific technologies were required to sail the open seas?