BRAIN STRUCTURES, ETYMOLOGY and FUNCTIONS STRUCTURE ETYMOLOGY FUNCTION Prefrontal Cortex (or Frontal Lobe) “relating to the forehead” “hull, husk, pod” (Chudler, n. d. ) Controls executive functions such as Judgment, managing emotional characteristics, voluntary movement, reasoning, memory, and language skills (Kahn, 2012) Temporal Lobe “temples of the head” “hull, husk, pod” Manages hearing, speech, and auditory functions (Kahn, 2012) Occipital Lobe “back of the head” “hull, husk, pod” (Chudler, n. . ) Processes data from the eyes (PSS, 2002) Parietal Lobe “wall” “hull, husk, pod” Receives sensory information from the skin (PBS, 2002) Limbic Region “border, hem, or fringe” (Chudler, n. d. ) Home of emotions and “regulates temperature, blood pressure, heart rate, and blood sugar” (PSS, 2002) cerebellum “little brain” “Controls posture, balance, and coordination” and stores “learned, physical skills” (PSS, 2002) Amygdala “almond” (Chudler, n. d. “Plays a critical role in learning, cognition, and the processing of emotional memories” Oensen, 2005, p. 159) Hippocampus “sea-horse” (Chudler, n. d. ) Integrates sensory information and plays a critical role in memory functions Oensen, 2005) Thalamus inner chamber” Sorts and transmits sensory data to the cerebral cortex and also aids in making memories (PSS, 2002) Hypothalamus “under thalamus” “Influences and regulates appetite, hormone secretion, digestion, sexuality, circulation, emotions, and sleep” Oensen, 2005, p. 61 Corpus Callosum “hard, tough body’ (Chudler, n. d. ) Connects the left and right hemisphere and carries messages between them (PBS, 2002) cortex “bark”, “shell,” “outer layer” Functions are determined by the lobes such as temporal, occipital, frontal, and parietal lobes (Society for Neuroscience, 2012) Pons “bridge” (Chudler, n. d. ) Connects the 2 parts of the medulla oblongata, contribute to consciousness, sleep, and arousal (Kahn, 2012). Also is a “critical relay station for sensory information Oensen, 2005, p. 62) Medulla Oblongata “inner most marrow’; “rather long” Controls important basic functions such as breathing, heart rate, swallowing, and other vital functions (Kahn, 2012) Neuron “nerve” Carry electrochemical messages in the brain (Chudler, 2012) Glial Cells “glue” “Transport nutrients to neurons, clean up brain debris, digest parts of dead neurons, and help hold neurons in place” (Society for Neuroscience, 2012) Axon “axis, axle” (Chudler, n. d. ) Takes information away from the cell body (Chudler, 2012) Dendrite “tree” (Chudler, n. d. Receives information into the cell body (Chudler, 2012) Synapse “connection” Points of communication for neurons (Society for Neuroscience, 2012) Neurotransmitter “nerve,” “across,” “send” “Transmit information across the synapse to communicate from one neuron to another” (Chudler, n. d. ) References Chudler, E. (n. d. ). Glossary of neuroscience words. Retrieved from http://faculty. washington. edu/chudler/gloss. html Chudler, E. (n. d. ). Neuroanatomical, neurophysiological, and neuropsychological terminology. Retrieved from http://faculty. ashington. edu/chudler/neuroroot. html Chudler, E. 2012). Types of neurons. Retrieved from http:// faculty. washington. edu/chudler/cells. html Jensen, E. (2005). Teaching with the brain in mind (2nd Ed. ). Alexandria, VA: ASCD ISBN: 978-1416600305 Khan, S. (2012). Diagram of the brain and its functions. Retrieved from http://www. buzzle. com/articles/diagram-of-the-brain-and-its-functions. html Public Broadcast System. (2002) 3D brain anatomy (Viewpoint, n. d. ) Society for Neuroscience. (2012). Brain facts: A primer on the brain and nervous system. Retrieved Brain-Facts-book from http://www. brainfacts. org/About-Neuroscience/
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