Biomechanics Science Experiment BY 55431 Biomechanics Tyler November 17, 2011 Table of Contents Introduction pgs. 3-5 Materials pg. 6 Procedures pg. 7 Data pg. 8 Analysis pg. 9 Discussion pg. 10 Conclusion pg. 11 Bibliography pg. 12 Acknowledgments pg. 13 Appendix A pg. 14 Appendix B pg. 15 Introduction Follow-through is a basic concept in the idea of biomechanics. Biomechanics is the study of the structure and function of biological systems by means of the methods of forces. Mechanics can be divided into two sub categories which are statics and dynamics.
Statics is the study of systems that are in a state of constant motion either t rest or moving with a constant speed. Dynamics is the study of systems in motion that have acceleration. Biomechanics can sometimes be confused with kinesiology, but they are different in some ways. Biomechanics is a better all around way to summarize the main concepts. Biomechanical analysis can be divided into four sections. Those four are noncinematographic analysis, basic cinematographic analysis, intermediate cinematographic analysis, and biomechanics research.
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Noncinematographic analysis is the most common technique used in sports and requires a disciplined approach to bserving and analyzing skills, but does not require mathematical equations. Basic cinematographic analysis involves the use of film or videotape but not mathematical equations. Intermediate cinematographic analysis requires some use of math and film. Biomechanics research is very complicated and so is the equipment and it also takes a long period of time. Newton’s Laws play a large part Biomechanics.
Law of Inertia states that an object continues in a state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line unless acted upon by an external force. A force is required to move, stop, or alter an object. Law of Acceleration states that when an object is contacted, the greater the force, the greater the acceleration. In other words, the velocity of a moving object will remain constant unless a force acts on it. The Law of Action and Reaction states that if one body exerts a force on another body, the second body will exert an equal and opposite force on the first body.
This means that any force we use there is an equal and opposite force that comes with it. There are three different types of motion which are linear motion, curvilinear motion, and rotary motion. Linear motion means that a person is said to move as a whole with all parts moving in the same direction. If the path is straight, it is linear. Curvilinear motion is described as an object that moves in a curved path. The motion has a horizontal component plus a force that pulls it inward. Rotary motion happens when a point in a system is secured so that the system will rotate around this point when it receives force; so the point becomes its axis.
The most important part of biomechanics would be sports biomechanics. The main parts of this category would be statics, kinetics, velocity, acceleration, moment f inertia, and torque. Statics is the analysis of the amount of force on a physical object at a constant velocity. Kinetics is the relationship between the motion of an object and the force it causes. It describes motion of objects without considering the forces that cause motion. Velocity is the measurement of the rate and direction of change in the position of an object. The rate of change for velocity is acceleration.
Acceleration is the rate at which something speeds up or slows down. Acceleration also describes the rate of change of both the magnitude and direction of velocity. Acceleration in the common world is known as an increase in speed (velocity). Moment of inertia is a measure of an object’s resistance to changes to its rotation. It describes the relationship between angular momentum and angular velocity. Torque is the tendency of a force to rotate an object on its axis. Considering a force being a Another name for biomechanics is mechanical engineering. Any type of engineering is hard work, but usually very common.
This type of engineering is especially seen in the sports world. In most sports experiments, all of these factors and measurements take place in some way. Biomechanics occurs around us every time we move. Even though we cannot see it, it still drastically affects the world. The problem for this experiment is how does striking a soccer ball without follow- through versus with follow-through affect the distance the ball will travel? The purpose and goal of this experiment is to help and prove to all people and players in the sports world that biomechanics and follow-through is important in sports.
It can make an impact in any sport really, but especially in soccer like my experiment. The hypothesis for this experiment is that if a 2″x4″ piece of wood follows-through while triking the soccer ball, then the soccer ball will travel a greater distance than without follow-through. The variables are: independent is follow-through versus stopping on contact, dependent is distance the ball travels in meters, and the control is lever, ball, tape measure, momentum of lever, and surface on which the ball travels. The rationale the experiment is because the interest biomechanics and sports.
Materials Tape measure Drill Saw 2 pieces of 2″x4″ wood, 4 feet long 2 pieces of 2″x4″ wood, 2 feet long 1 piece of 2″x4″ wood, 43 inches long 1 wooden dowel, 2 inches in diameter, 4 feet long 2 Rubber bands Nails Hammer sheet of plywood Size 5 Soccer ball Log Book Procedures 1. Refer to Appendix A for steps 2-9 and steps 11-14 2. Three pieces of 2″x4″ wood will have a 2. 5 inch round whole drilled 2 inches from the top of each piece of wood. 3. Two pieces of 2″x4″ wood, both 4 feet long, will each be attached toa wooden base with nails forming the stands. The wooden bases will from each other. . The third piece of 2″x4″ wood with a 2. 5 inch hole 2 inches from the top, 43″ long will be used as the lever which will strike the soccer ball in the center. 6. A 4 ft long 2″ wooden dowel will be placed through the hole of the left stand, the hole of the ever, and the hole of the right stand. 7. The lever piece will be held in the center of the dowel using rubber bands on each side to keep the lever from shifting left/right on the dowel. 8. With the lever hanging still, a size 5 soccer ball will be placed so the lever Just touches the center point of the ball. . The lever will then be pulled to form a 90 degree angle to the ground and released. Since the lever swings freely, the ball will be struck with follow-through. 10. The distance the ball travels will be measured in meters and recorded. This step will be repeated 24 more times for a total of 25 imes. 11. A sheet of plywood will then be attached to both stands forming a solid wall. 12. An arch shaped hole 10 inches tall will be cut away around the area where the ball sits forming a barrier that prevents the lever from following-through. 13.
With the lever hanging still, a size 5 soccer ball will be placed so the lever Just touches the center point of the ball. 14. The lever will then be pulled to form a 90 degree angle to the ground and released. Since the wall forms a barrier, the ball will be struck without follow-through. 15. The distance the ball travels will be measured times. 16. The data (distance the ball travels in meters) will be recorded into a data table and converted into a bar graph comparing how follow-through effects the distance the ball travels in meters. Data and Results Distance of Ball vs.
Follow Through Distance of Ball with follow through in Centimeters average Distance of Ball without follow through in Centimeters average 503. 936 389. 636 Analysis The results of this experiment were what should be expected. The results compare the same to most of the other experiments done on a topic about biomechanics. A large majority of these other experiments all add up to the fact that follow-through n an object affects the distance of an object. The results also agree with common held beliefs among most people. If the lever swings through the object, then it will go farther.
Most people believe this and it has been prove many times so the results are not surprising. There could have been a few minor errors. One would be not pulling the lever to an absolutely perfect 90 degrees, but it might only be a couple off. Another one could be the level of the surface we were using. It could force the object to alter its track and not go the same way every time. The uncontrollable factors were stuff outside ike wind, temperature, humidity, and moisture levels. One way to improve this experiment would be to get a long open room to do the experiment in.
Then the experiment would not be affected by uncontrollable factors and it would eliminate some other factors that disrupt the experiment. This experiment could lead to any future experiment involving some type of biomechanics or involving striking an object. An example might be changing the angle at which the lever is released or if weight on the end of the lever or at the beginning (handle) of the lever would increase distance the most. The results of the experiment were as expected. The experiment followed my hypothesis. Hitting the ball with follow-through averaged a greater distance with 503. 36 centimeters than hitting the ball without follow-through with 389. 636 centimeters. The results clearly conclude that follow-through has a large effect on the distance of an object. Bibliography Animation Academy. “Fundementals of Follow-Through. ” Vers. 1 . 2010. Autodesk. Animation Academy. 11 September 2011 Biomech. ,J. The meaning of the term “biomechanics”. 2010. Boone, Tommy and Larry Birnbaum. Basic Concept in Sports Biomechanics. 1 1 September 2011 Bores, Leo D. Constitutive Laws. 21 December 2007. October 2011 . BrianMac Sports Coach. Biomechanics. 0 September 2011. 5 October 2011 Brown, Shael. “The Physics of Kicking a Soccer Ball. ” Research Report. n. d. Cross, Rod and Nathan M. Alan. “Performance Versus Moment of Inertia of Sporting Implements. ” Sports Technology (2009): 1-9. Mallac, Chris. Biomechanics of Soccer. 11 September 2011 Northstar Biokinetics, Inc. What is Biomechanics? 2011. 5 October 2011 . Topend Sports Network. Sports Biomechanics. 24 September 2011. Acknowledgments I would like to thank my parents for some ideas on how to improve my project and helping me build the apparatus.
I would like to thank Science Buddies for helping me get to my idea for a project. I would like to thank Home Depot for the supplies we used. Distance of Ball vs. Follow-through Trial # Follow-through in Centimeters Without Follow-through in Centimeters 434. 34 322. 58 2 469. 9 431 . 8 3 472. 44 429. 26 4 510. 54 411. 48 5 505. 46 416. 56 6 495. 3 449. 58 7 538. 48 414. 02 487. 68 406. 4 9 525. 78 10 474. 98 11 332. 74 12 480. 06 403. 86 13 365. 76 14 368. 3 15 533. 4 327. 66 16 17 408. 94 18 497. 84 19 523. 24 360. 68 20 21 482. 6 51 5. 62 337. 82 307. 34 24 490. 22 330. 2 25 378. 46 AVG. 503. 936