bill of rights BY SWAMY-KING Bill of Rights A democracy must ensure that individuals have certain rights and that the government will always recognize these rights. Therefore it is often a practice in most democratic countries to list the rights of the citizens in the constitution itself. Such a list of rights mentioned and protected by the constitution is called the ‘bills of rights. A bill of rights prohibits government from thus acting against the rights of the individuals and ensures a remedy in case there is violation of these rights.
FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS IN THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION The word fundamental suggests that these rights are so important that the Constitution has separately listed them and made special provisions for their protection. The Fundamental Rights are so important that the Constitution itself ensures that they are not violated by the government. Fundamental Rights are different from other rights available to us. While ordinary legal rights are protected and enforced by ordinary law, Fundamental Rights are protected and guaranteed by the constitution of the country.
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Ordinary rights may be changed by the legislature by rdinary process of law making, but a fundamental right may only be changed by amending the Constitution itself. Besides this, no organ of the government can act in a manner that violates them. RIGHT TO EQUALITY Right to equality tries to do away with discriminations. It provides for equal access to public places like shops, hotels, places of entertainment, wells, bathing ghats and places of worship. There cannot be any discrimination in this access on the basis of caste, creed, color, sex, religion, or place of birth.
It also prohibits any discrimination in public employment on any of the above mentioned basis. This right is very important because our society did not practice equal access in the past. The practice of untouchability is one of the crudest manifestations of inequality. This has been abolished under the right to equality. The same right also provides that the state shall confer no title on a person except those who excel themselves in military or academic field.
Thus right to equality strives to make India a true democracy by ensuring a sense of equality of dignity and status among all its citizens. The Constitution clarifies that the government can implement special schemes and easures for improving the conditions of certain sections of society: children, women, and the socially and educationally backward classes. You may have heard about ‘reservations’ in Jobs, and in admissions. You would have wondered why there are reservations if we follow the principle of equality. In fact Article 16(4) of the violation of right to equality.
RIGHT TO FREEDOM Equality and freedom or liberty, are the two rights that are most essential to a democracy. It is not possible to think of the one without thinking of the other. Liberty means freedom of thought, expression and action. A freedom is defined in such a manner that every person will enjoy her freedom without threatening freedom of others and without endangering the law and order situation. Right to life and personal liberty The foremost right among rights to freedom is the right to life and personal liberty.
No citizen can be denied his or her life except by procedure as laid down under the law. Similarly no one can be denied his/her personal liberty. That means no one can be arrested without being told the grounds for such an arrest. Rights of accused no person would be punished for the same offence more than once, No law shall declare any action as illegal from a backdate, No person shall be asked to give evidence against himself or RIGHT AGAINST EXPLOITATION herself.
The Constitution forbids employment of children below the age of 14 years in dangerous Jobs like factories and mines. With child labor being made illegal and right to education becoming a fundamental right for children, this right against exploitation has become more meaningful. RIGHT TO FREEDOM OF RELIGION This freedom is considered as a hallmark of democracy. Historically, there were rulers and emperors in different parts of the world who did not allow residents of heir countries to enjoy the right to freedom of religion.
Persons following a religion different from that of the ruler were either persecuted or forced to convert to the official religion of the rulers. This freedom is considered as a hallmark of democracy. Historically, there were rulers and emperors in different parts of the world who did not allow residents of their countries to enjoy the right to freedom of religion. forced to convert to the official religion of the rulers. Democracy has always incorporated the freedom to follow the religion of one’s choice as one of its basic principles.