Intelligence and Achievement Assessments Walden University Assessment in Counseling and Education coun 6360-4 February 03, 2011 The General Education Development tests (GED) is a series of tests first created in 1942 to aid veterans of world war II (GED -resting service [GEDTS], 2009). Since then the GED has been used to aid people who do not complete high school achieve certification of high school knowledge and skill proficiency (GEDTS, 2009). The GED is a series of tests measuring language arts reading and writing, mathematics, science, and social studies (GEDTS, 2009).
The GED tests are available in English, French, and Spanish (GEDTS, 2009). There have been four GED series with 2002 being the most recent technical manual available online (GEDTS, 2009). The GED has been normed several times due to both changes in test content and perceived changes in achievement level of graduating seniors (GEDTS, 2009). The 1987 norming sample included more than 20,000 students who were preparing to graduate (GED, 1991). The 1980 norming sample was somewhat different as it included GED examinees (GED, 1991).
The 2002 GED tests battery was normed in 2001 with a sample of 10,160 raduating seniors from 347 public schools and 12 private schools (GEDTS, 2009). The 2002 GED tests battery includes five tests each with a mean of 500 and a SD of 100 (GEDTS, 2009). The previous standard score scale was a mean of 50 and a SD of 10 (GED, 1991). Additional forms were equated in subsequent years with data current to 2005 in the technical manual (GEDTS, 2009). Reliability is important to establishing test quality. Several evaluations were conducted on the 2002 GED tests battery.
Reliability on the multiple choice portion was measured by calculating internal onsistency, Standard Error of Mean, and alternate form reliability. The writing portion was measure using inter-rater reliability and scoring stability. The KR-20 coefficient showed to between . 93 to . 95 in the years 2001, 2002, 2003, and 2005 (GEDTS, 2009). The alternate form reliability co-effcient was between . 72 and . 82 for all tests except writing which was . 52 respectively (GEDTS, 2009). The mean performance on the first form administered was less than a . 5 standard deviation Evidence of validity was measured by test content, internal structure, and elationship with other variables (GEDTS, 2009). The tests were considered valid based on said measurements. Prior evidence of reliability was not reported in any test manual or resource (GED, 1991). Additional measurements in both reliability and validity were conducted on the Spanish and French versions of the test battery separate from the English version. Each content format besides the essay includes 40 to 50 multiple choice questions (GEDTS, 2009). The tests are administered at local centers credentialed with Jurisdiction (GEDTS, 2009).
The GED is a timed test with arying time limits for each content area (GEDTS, 2009). Times limits for English differ than those of French and Spanish. The GED is not scored centrally and each jurisdiction is responsible for correct scoring, although each site must adhere to the same scoring guidelines (GEDTS, 2009). The multiple choice forms are electronically scored and the essay is scored by readers with the use of a holistic rubric described in the technical manual (GEDTS, 2009). Previous reviews mention lack of validity evidence which is now in the 2002 technical manual establishing for validity than prior years (GED, 1991).
One limitation of the GED assessment would be the exorbitant amount of time required to complete the assessment. The timed portions work out between 1-2 hours per content area, thus making it unreasonable to complete in one session. One strength of the GED assessment is the high reliability which has led to many employers and colleges accepting the assessment as a replacement to a high school diploma (GEDTS, 2009). References GED -resting service. (2009). Technical Manual: 2002 senes GED -rests. GED. (1991). Mental Measurements Yearbook. Retrieved February 4, 2011 from Walden University Library.