Article Critique Successful Aging BY tullerl 6549 SOWK 505 – FALL 2013 Assignment # 1 – Article Critique Richard Kirkwood & Stephanie Smith september 13, 2013 Professor Dodson, LCSW Hooyman, N. R. , & Kiyak, H. A. (2008). Personality and mental health in old age. In Social gerontology: A multidisciplinary perspective (8th ed. , pp. 223-258). Retrieved from https://usc. ares. atlas-sys. com/ares/ares. dll? SessionID=U214440684U&Action=10 Main Points The process of aging affects every person’s lifespan and is a process that no person can escape.
Aging is associated ith maturation, age related declines, and then eventual death. The main theme that emerges from Hooyman’s article “Personality and Mental Health in Old Age” confronts the phenomenon of successful aging from a psychosocial and biomedical approach. First Hooyman implicates that many older people are living healthier and more fulfilling lives by avoiding disabling health issues and declines in cognitive mental skills that distinguish them from other less robust older individuals (Hooyman & Kiyak, 2008, p. 223).
Secondly Hooyman implies that successful older people xperience less risk of “disease and disability by incorporating healthy lifestyle factors into their daily living, and successfully conceptualizing problem solving functions ensuring mental stimulation and integrating “personal agency’ in their individual choices and behaviors (Hooyman & Kiyak, 2008, p. 223). The author backs up her claims with a study conducted by “The MacArthur Studies of Successful Aging,” examine the cognitive and physical functions of a selective group of robust older people that represented the top tier of their age group.
The study tested highly unctioning cohorts between the ages of 70-79 to determine measurements of physical and cognitive functioning and its relationship between health status and M229). In the article, Hooyman contends successful aging performances were associated with those that had fewer chronic health issues, “better self-rated health”, were highly educated, financially stable, and had strong support systems compared to elders that did not process such attributes (Hooyman & Kiyak, 2008, p. 223).
Theoretical Value As generations continue to age and contemplate retirement they are faced with he outcomes of the aging process, expecting to retain psychological and physical resources to cope and maintain a sense of well being. Hooyman touches on the concepts of self-efficacy and resiliency as important attributes associated with the social construction of successful aging, seen as the catalyst for growth and development combining feelings of competence and the ability to thrive under multiple life challenges faced by the elderly.
Psychological and social development provide insights on the methods of empowerment providing “resilient self-belief of fficacy’ to exercise control and alter aspects of one’s life to make a change and live it more abundantly (Ozer & Bandura, 1990, p. 472). Empowerment in the elderly requires on a personal level the ability to articulate and exercise choice to avoid physical and mental vulnerability and autonomy associated with the disengagement theory.
According to Bearson (1996), Cummings and Henrys disengagement theory (1961) postulates as the elderly age, many gradually become disenfranchised, disengaged, and withdraw from “social roles in capabilities of diminished interest” ssuming roles of passivity while preparing for death (Bearson, 1996). This is in complete contrast to Havighurst’s activity theory that claims as the elderly age staying mentally and physically active preserves life satisfaction and perseverance (Lemon, Bengtson, & Peterson, 1972, p. 11). Hooyman concludes with her agreement with Erickson and other theorists that the development of the personality does not stabilize in early adulthood but continues to develop, change and evolve well into the twilight years. Erickson believed that developmental stages in his psychosocial theory ontinues to develop, superseded and impacted each stage furthering development as a person age as generativity become an important aspect of active aging (Hooyman & Kiyak, 2008, p. 256).
From the scope of enhancement of human behavior, the article defines the enhancement of successful physical, cognitive, and emotional aging, emphasizing physical health and outcomes of freedom from disease and disability as criteria of successful aging. The uniqueness of the article can be explained from the perspective of the theory of gerotranscendence, a developmental rocess in human development that optimizes the process extending into old age, “redefining the meaning of self, relationships, and development of new understanding of the fundamentals of existentialism” (Wadensten, 2005, p. 81-382). Overall Evaluation Aging can be considered abstract in context as the continuation of the life cycle, as people age and come to the realization that life is not finite. Some quickly adjust and immediately embrace this new and exciting time in their lives, whereas others struggle and cannot adjust or identify with the impending changes of ging.
From the standpoint of social work; successful aging should be viewed as a continuum of achievement with measurements of progress in devoting time and effort in improving the activities and lifestyles that anticipate positive change and aging, adjustment is the key to acceptance, but adjustment is based on options available to all across the course of life. In social work, all limitations must be taken in account for those that have been historically disadvantaged by lack of resources, declining health, low-income, minority status, and those that have been disengaged n succeeding in the precepts of successful aging (Hooyman & Kiyak, 2008, p. 26). Empowerment in the elderly populations requires identification of disempowerment that constrains social, physical, personal, and cognitive spheres affecting older people. References Bearson, L. B. (1996). Successful aging: What does the “good life” look like? The Forum of Family and Consumer Issues (FFCI), 1, no 3(3). Retrieved from http://www. ncsu. edu/ ffci/publications/1996/v1-n3-1996-summer/successful-aging. php Hooyman, N. R. , & Kiyak, H. A. (2008). Personality and mental health in old age. In Social gerontology: A multidisciplinary perspective (8th ed. pp. 223-258). Retrieved from https:// Lemon, B. W. , Bengtson, V. L. , & Peterson, J. A. (1972). An exploration of the activity theory of aging: Activity types and life satisfaction among in-movers to a retirement community. Journal of Gerontology, 27, no 4, 511-523. http://dx. doi. org/doi: 10. 1093/ geronJ/27. 4. 511 Ozer, E. M. , & Bandura, A. (1990). Mechanisms governing empowerment effects: A self-efficacy analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, no 3, 472-486. Retrieved from http://nomeansnoworldwide. org/ ocument/Mastery. Ozer. df Tabbarah, M. , Crimmins, E. M. , & Seeman, T. E. (2002). The relationship between cognitive and physical performance: MacArthur studies of successful aging. Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences, 57A, no 4, M228-M235. Retrieved from http://biomedgerontology. oxford]ournals. org. libproxy. usc. edu/ content/57/4/M228. full. pdf Wadensten, B. (2005, January 24, 2005). Introducing older people to the theory of gerotranscendence. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 52, no 4, 381-388. Retrieved from http://www-old. soc. uu. se/research/gerontology/pdf/ groupdiscussion. pdf