GESTALT THEORY GIST “the whole is greater than the sum of its parts” ORIGIN ??? Psychological term which means “unified whole” ??? It refers to theories of visual perception developed by German psychologists in the 1920s. ??? Describe how people tend to organize visual elements into groups or unified wholes when certain principles are applied. PRINCIPLES Closure Continuance Similarity Proximity CLOSURE ??? The mind supplies the missing pieces in a composition ??? Eg: A face CONTINUANCE ??? The eye continues in the direction it is going SIMILARITY ?? What an item looks like AND how that affects grouping. ?? 3 similarity grouping types 1. Size 2. Value/Color 3. Shape Value/Color Shape ??? The example above (containing 11 distinct objects) appears as a single unit because all of the shapes have similarity. ??? Unity occurs because the triangular shapes at the bottom of the eagle symbol look similar to the shapes that form the sunburst. ??? When similarity occurs, an object can be emphasized if it is dissimilar to others. This is called anomally. ??? The figure on the far right becomes a focal point because it is dissimilar to the other hapes.
PROXIMITY ??? Where items are in relationship to each other AND how that affects grouping. ??? Proximity occurs when elements are placed close together. They tend to be perceived as a group The fifteen fgures above form a unified whole (the shape of a tree) because of their proximity. FIGURE AND GROUND ??? The eye differentiates an object form its surrounding area. a form, silhouette, or shape is naturally perceived as fgure (object), while the surrounding area is perceived as ground (background). ??? Balancing figure and ground can make the erceived image more clear.
Using unusual fgure/ground relationships can add interest and subtlety to an image. Figure The word above is clearly perceived as figure with the surrounding white space In this image, the figure and ground relationships change as the eye perceives the form of a shade or the silhouette of a face. This image uses complex figure/ground relationships which change upon perceiving leaves, water and tree trunk. Summed up as “the whole is greater………. than the sum of its parts each of the individual parts have meaning on their own