Body Eugenia Kaw (Opening Eyes)- plastic surgery as a form of internalized colonialism. Cultural stereotypes on what is beautiful and what is not. Subconscious. Racist stereotypes theyre taking action on. Plastic surgery as form on internalized colonialism- look at Eugenia Kaw. Susan Bordo (The Slender Body) -look at consumption vs. accumulation and capitalist contradiction. Consumption vs. Accumulation -from Bordo’s article. Tight” Bodies as Cultural Symbols of Morality/Self-Control- “l Enjoy Being a Girl” (music videos and women’s capitalist role as primary consumers and sexualized bjects)- Emily Martin (The Egg and the Sperm)- Western Cultural Biases in Science- western science has frequently portrayed women’s sexual function as being very wasteful. Men are portrayed as productive. Our science has been biased or skewed by our societies stereotypes. Arguing that science is influenced by culture-society. Race Stephen J.
Gould (Race is cultural construct)- Human Variation as a Continum- from Gould’s article; How to measure variation, Defining races does not allow us to see variation. Clines??”refer to the fact that populations do adapt to a particular environment, but this does not constitute race. Sickle Cell Anemia and Other “Racial” Variations- lot of ppl in Africa/Mediterranean have it. Defense mechanism vs. malaria b/c you can’t have both. Not racially based. Higher prevalence, but not linked to race but where they are from. Marvin Harris (Bundled Traits)- take few features to define a race.
There are no bundled traits or concordance of features??”if we tried to biologically distinguish people into separate races based on a number of shared traits such as skin color, hair, blood types, allergies, the result would be hundreds of different races. IQ Tests- they are culture- bound. Contingent on history… They test familiarity with cultural background. Cultural Bias- Paul Broca- 1861 , established Anthropology society of Paris. Claimed that Europeans were superior race. Tested on examined forearm length b/w diff. races. Shorter would mean more intelligent. Looked at some Africans, Europeans, and Asians.
Africans had relatively longer forearms. Asians had relatively shorter forearm– shortest. Tried cranio capacity. Found that Mongols had the largest capacity, looked at skull length. Found that Africans had longest skulls. Looked at skull width??” Germans had the widest. He checked the degree of entry of the foramen magnum (spinal cord hits neck). A smaller degree of angle supposedly meant more intelligent. Africans had smallest degree of entry. A Priori Assumptions- make an assumption before you go into research. You have biased thoughts in your mind. Foramen Magnum- Broca. Brainsize and Intelligence- Broca.
Asian, African European- Broca. Scientific Racism- Broca. Robert Bean- 1906, compared corpus collosum tissue of a white sample group and a black sample group in the U. S. Corpus Collosum- look at Robert Bean. DNA and Racial classification – Kinship Matrilineal??”descent traced thru mother’s side. Patrilineal??”descent traced thru father’s side. Bilateral ??”trace ancestry thru both parent’s sides. Ropes??”descent traced thru opposite gender. *The ! Kung, Eskimo, many Western Europeans do this. Annette Weiner- anthropologist who went to Trobriand Islands in 1970s, 80s, 90s, and focused on women.
She focused on political, social importance of the Sagan-occurs about 1 yr after a person dies. It’s a feast and gift exchanged period in the islands, and women are in charge of these prestigious events. Trobrianders- matrilineal ociety: trace descent through mother’s side. Adolescent Sexuality- Arapesh, Tonambuli, Mandugomor in New Guinea. Yams, Skirts and Trobriand Marriage- young, adolescent males move out of the parent’s home and into a “bachelor’s hut”. Teenage girls basically pick a boy they like and visit him at his bachelor’s hut. They use “beauty magic” to try to attract partners.
They have dances where boys and girls try to impress each other. Girls will often stay at a boys hut all night and then sneak home before dawn. Matrilineal- Trobriand Husband/Wife Relationship- father does not cause fertilization in Trobriand perspective, but does “open the path” for the spirit. Sex helps the baby to grow. Sex is good for the baby. Incest Taboos- father and daughter, Brother and sister. Brother and sister stronger b/c related thru mother. *Trobriand Beliefs of Procreation- Baloma Spirit- Trobriand notions of death and pro-creation. When a Trobriand person dies, it’s believed that their ‘Baloma spirit’ goes to Tuma Island.
Over time, the Baloma will become old and wrinkled (80 yrs). The Baloma bathes in the sea and becomes young again. The old spirit’s skin washes off into ocean and forms little baby pirit ( WaiWaia) Waiwaia Spirit -will swim from Tuma back to Trobriand Islands and look for a mother through which to be born. The “mother” must be of the correct matrilineage. The spirit combines with blood in the mother’s womb to create a baby. Tuma Island- Reincarnation; When someone dies, goes there (the baloma spirit) Who Takes Care of Trobriand Children? – father is your primary nurturer, but not a disciplinarian.
Your mother and brother are responsible for raising the next generation of leaders. They are going to the be disciplinarians. The Nuer of Sudan- pastoralists (herders) Bridecattle-cattle exchanged to “seal” a marriage, from man to woman’s family Patrilineal- only men are permitted to own cattle. Polygyny- man with more than one wife. Different Types of Nuer Marriages (simple legal, ghost, leviratic, female husbands, widow concubinage) *Different roles among Nuer: Genitor -bio. father. Pater -social/ official father. Legal marital partner -husband/partner. *Kinship Charts: Eskimo: (lineal) nuclear family, same as U. S. unts and uncles are called aunts and uncles. Cousins are cousins. Hawaiian: aunts and uncles are mother and father. All cousins are considered siblings. Iroquois: Cross-cousins father’s sister’s & mother’s brother’s kids are cousins. Parallel cousins => mother’s sister’s kids are siblings. !Kung- have very strict rules regarding incest. Like mixing. Related through names. Bilateral- (biological kin) both mom and dad kin are related equally to children. Names??”ppl have same name as a kin relation, will also be treated as family. Names come from ancestors. Incest Rules- can’t marry people w/in fictive and biological kin.
Wi-Fictive Kin- (names- you are related to everyone and anyone hat has same name of your bilateral kin) making people who aren’t part of Klan, part of Klan. Not biologically related. An older person may “w'” a younger person and this results in their becoming family. WI” is like an adoption. Forbidden to marry that person! !Kung Marriage- usually find marriage partners from a far away band. By marrying far away, both family groups increase knowledge of resources. Exogamous??”marry outside of the group. Some Endogamous??”marry inside the social group. First marriage is arranged by parents.
Groom will perform “bride service” for bride’s family once they live together. Both men and women care for children. Bride Service- living with bride family. Future husband works for wife’s family to pay off debt that he owes. Polygamy- more than one wife and husband. Polygyny- more than one wife. Polyandry- more than one husband. Exogamous- forces to marry outside family and create connections. Gender and Sexuality Margaret Mead- Arapesh- both men & women raised to be nurturing/passive. Both work in gardens; community and harmony. Tchambuli -women are the sexual initators.
Men go to market. Women do the fishing. Mundugomor- men are both raised to be aggressive. Fathers raise daughters and mothers raise sons. “The Five Sexes”- Anne Fausto-Sterling. human sexuality is a variation and continuum. Herm- hermaphrodite. 1 testes and 1 ovary. Merm- gonads of the same type. 2 testes and some female characteristics. Ferm- gonads of the same type. 2 ovaries and some male characteristics. If Men Can Menstruate- Gloria Steiner. -If even roles are reversed, will find Justification to show that men are superior. Gender equality is expressed in biological differences. Logic.
Harris: Polymorphism -genetic variation caused when a gene has 1 or more alleles, 85% ifference within major races Sickle Cell -blood disorder where red blood cells misshapen, unable to carry oxygen (ex of polymorphism) Culture bound -Stanford Binet IQ test was Clines -increasing/decreasing distribution of traits over geographical area Rickets – disease caused by Vitamin D deficiency Gould: Foramen Magnum -hole at the base of skull that spinal cord passes thru Subspecies -further dividing of species classification Corpus Callosum -structure in brain containing fibers connecting right and left hemispheres Paul Broca -famous craniometrist of 19th century Guiding Questions: 1. Race: Gould (says it) and Harris (echoes it)- no biological basis for race. Race is a social construct. Race is not self-evident, variability is. Variability due to environment, and geographic location??”that’s what we’re seeing. Skin??”darker when closer to equator.
In all the research studies on physical differences don’t have significant conclusions. He says that skin color is problematic because there is so much variation. White here in U. S. may not be White in somewhere else. Says that there are no “bundled traits” or features (hair color, eye color, blood type… ). If we try to put eople in specific categories, we would end up with hundred of traits. Are no specifically shared traits. Traits/poplns are always in flux (always changing). No “pure” races. Clines- pop’lns do adapt to particular environments, but does not constitute a race, but constitutes variability??”a. k. a. microadaptation. “DNA”- students in video.
Students thought they would be most like the ppl they looked like the most. Variation can be greater within groups than between groups, that’s why we cant have bundled traits! 2. Trobriand View of Procreation: Tuma Island is real. Baloma spirit is a good spirit. Baloma goes to live on Tuma Island. Becomes old & wrinkled after 80 yrs, bathes in sea after 80 yrs to become younger again. In trying to become young, skin gets washed off and becomes a baby spirit??”Waiwai spirit (created from the skin of baloma spirit). Waiwai spirit swims back to Trobriand Islands to look for mother/ woman of the same matrilineage. Enters mother. Related to mother’s side of the family.
Connects to the way child is raised. Father’s role is to open the path (nourish the baby. Not related to pregnancy). Procreation emphasizes matrilineage aspect of Trobriand fam. . Nuer: Kinship has to continue, it is patrilineal. Subsistence- pastoralists, depend on herds and animals??”cattle. Only men have access to cattle. Gender Relations- patriarchical. Genitor- biological father. I Pater- social father/official father. I Legal marital partner- husband/partner of the wife. 1 . Simple legal marriage- husband and wife get married and have children. if someone dies before he has children??”ghost marriage (no children) where a woman gets married to a pro-husband.
Person who dies is the PATER. GENITOR -person that takes place of dead husband (pro-husband legal marital partner). If a family only has daughters then one of daughters have to be PATER. Genitor becomes any man. Legal marital partner is female husband. Everyone has to have children. Every child has to have parents. 2. Leviratic marriage -If a person dies, she can go w/ pro-husband or husband’s brother. Genitor-pro- husband. Pater-1st husband. Can have widow concubinage… 3. Concubinage- If a woman has a lover. Genitor is the lover. If woman is married, 1st husband is alive=PATER and LMP. If she’s not married, unmarried concubinage- PATER is male or female w/o marriage.