Birth of the Republic Study Guide 1. The American Revolution, also known as the Revolutionary War, began in 1775. 2. British soldiers and American patriots started the war with battles at Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts. 3. Colonists in America wanted independence from England. 4. The British government attempted to pass some laws, enforce several taxes, and increase more control over the colonies. The colonies strongly objected to these laws and taxes. They wanted England to have no control over them. 5.
For ten years before the war actually started, there was a lot of tension between England and the colonies. 6. The colonies had no central government at the beginning of the war, so delegates from all the colonies were sent to form the first Continental Congress. 7. George Washington, a former military officer and wealthy Virginian, was appointed Commander in Chief of the Continental Army. 8. Members of the Continental Congress wrote a letter to King George of England outlining their complaints and declaring their independence from England. . On July 4, 1776, the Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence, in which the colonies declared their independence from England. 10. The war ended in 1783, and the United States of America was born causes? : Thomas paine- common sense–tis repugnant to reason, to the universal order of things, to all examples from former ages, to suppose that this Continent can long remain subject to any external power. ” George Ill- wanted to be stricter, more controlling.
The seven yars war and the indian war in north America drained british oney so George Ill thought that the colonists should help pay for these wars- to increase taxes paid by colonists, parliament passed the sugar act in 1764- which imposed import taxes and the Stamp Act in 1765- which imposed taxes on items such as newspapers and pamphlets. The colonists wanted no taxation without representation (they had no representatives in parliament and therefore should not complete authority over the colonists.
Colonists rebel- british soldiers open fired in boston on a crowd that ws throwing stones and snowballs. Boston massacre. Colonists hurled a cargo of recently arrived british tea into the harbor to proest a tax on tea. Known as boston tea party. When parliament passed strict laws to punish Massachusetts for the tea, others opposed british response. Representatives from each colony gathered in Philadelphia and met in a continental congress to decide their action. Colonists declare independence: Tension spread to war in Lexington and Massachusetts??”known as revolutionary war.
Congress met and set up continental army with George Washington in command. Thomas Jefferson was primary author of the declaration of independence- reflects john locke’s idea of the govs obligation to protect the people’s natural rights to “life, liberty, and property’- people had the rifht to ablish unjust governments. Popular sovereignty- governments power comes from the people 1/3 of American colonists were loyalists, those who supported Britain. Many others refused to fght for a side. Lacked soldiers and resources. Battle of Saratoga- americans triumphed over british.
This persuaded france to Join the americans against their rival, the briish. This alliance brought them needed supplies and resources. Netherlaands and Spain joined their support. They met in secret to redraft the articles of the constitution- established a gov run by the people, for the people. Created a federal republic- power divided between federal, national, government and the states. Separation of powers… the branches. Checks and blances Bill or rights- recognized idea that people had basic rights that the government must protect like freedom of religion, speech, and the press.