This report deals with the three aspects ,namely , the agricultural rationalization ,credit allocation mechanism and the rural-urban disparities within the two states of Assam and kernel. Both the states are predominantly agrarian with almost similar rainfall patterns and topography . Being agrarian in nature agricultural rationalization as well as the credit allocation mechanism play a pivotal role in it.
If agriculture stagnates, it will act as a break on industrial expansion and halt real Roth.. But it is obvious that there is hardly any possibility of substantial increase in the area of cultivation Therefore, intensive cultivation and strong credit allocation system that will intern help the farmers to get good seeds ,farm equipments appears to be the only way to boost agriculture Both the states have the same staple crop rice but the variety do vary due to temperature and the rainfall patter in the respective states.
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Kraal being termed as the ideal state has been growing at the rate of 6. 98% whereas Assam which is considered as an underdeveloped state its economy grew only by 3. % as compared to the 6% growth rate by India . There are various factors responsible for it. In this report we aim to look at the various agricultural issues and disparity . However we would suggest some key measures/ policy prescriptions that need to be taken by the state to more equitable distribution of resources within the regions and sectors of the state.
Overview of agriculture in Assam Agriculture in Assam exhibits most of the characteristics of underdeveloped/ backward agriculture, namely, a high dependence on agriculture for livelihood, widespread practice of traditional farming techniques and correspondingly low sage of modern farm inputs, low levels and low growth in productivity and incomes in the sector, widespread prevalence of subsistence cultivation, poor / inadequate agricultural infrastructure, and so on. About 89 per cent of the population in Assam lives in rural areas as per the 1991 Census.
About 75 per cent of the state’s population is directly or indirectly dependent on agriculture, while about 69 per cent of the workforce in the state is actually engaged in agricultural activities. On the other hand, the sector’s contribution to the state’s income has been falling sharply ever time, from nearly 50 per cent in early sass to only about 35 per cent by the end of sass. Though this is natural when economic development occurs, in Assam this has come about despite the slow overall economic growth in the state.
Even though the state is richly endowed in natural resources, such as abundant rainfall, alluvial Assam has been slow over the decades. Consequently, the state is not Just lagging behind most others in the country but is unable to meet its own requirements in many agricultural commodities. Now let us examine the progress of agriculture in Assam, the constraints it faces and possible policy actions that can be taken to remove / reduce those constraints to agricultural growth in the state. DATA: Before proceeding to assess the status of agriculture in Assam, a few remarks on the database are warranted.
The analysis relies on secondary data on various variables of interest. The data have been collated from various official statistical documents published by the Government of India, the Government of Assam, the North-Eastern Council, the Fertilizers Association of India, and the Assam Agricultural University, Gorham. The analysis is confined to the post-1980 period up to the latest year for which data are available. The gross cropped acreage total and under different crops is shown in Table 1 as an illustration. The data on total cropped acreage under the state does not tally with the sum total of the acreage under individual crops.
This obviously raises doubts about estimates of cropping intensity, cropping patterns, yield levels, et cetera. The data on irrigation also present a somewhat confusing and uncertain picture. On one hand, the data on net area irrigated in the state has not been updated ever since 1953-54. Whereas at other places in the above-mentioned data sources, various figures are reported as the irrigation potential developed and potential utilized. In such a situation, the true picture with regard to the status of irrigation cannot be properly gauged.
Further, the status with regard to the availability / use of irrigation for different crops is more or less unknown, as the crop-wise irrigation data have not been updated since 1953-54. With the available data being in such a situation, one can obtain only a rough idea of the state of affairs with regard to agriculture in Assam. They have been used only to obtain a rough comparative picture of the status of agriculture in Assam visit-Г¤-visit the country as a whole and in some cases with Punjab, probably agriculturally the most advanced state in India.
Such comparisons, though lacking in precision, could still provide valuable insights into the problems confronting agriculture in Assam. Agricultural rationalization Agricultural rationalization is basically is an area which depicts homogeneity in respect of agricultural land use and cropping pattern. It generally shows broad similar ties in the nature of crops grown, their combination pattern, method of litigation, average quantum of inputs and orientation of farming activities.
Such similarities mainly arise out of the uniformity of physical and agro-climatic conditions and socio- cultural characteristics. With the passage of time agricultural regions undergo changes in their salient features and characteristics. The introduction of rice cultivation in Punjab and popularity of wheat in the lower Gangs plain may be cited as examples. Agricultural regions are affected both by the elements of the physical and’ cultural environment. While former includes climate, topography, soils etc. ICC have their bearing on the agricultural characteristics, the latter consists of such elements like population density, agricultural practices, agro cultural technology, crop land use, land tenure, land ownership, arbitration, transport and into account in agricultural rationalization. Topography Assam Topography shows the positional features of the state. Sharing its borders with various states like Megalith, England, Bhutan, Mozart, West Bengal, Raunchy Pradesh and Maniple, Assam is located on the north-east part of India.
The prime geographical characters that form the topographical features of Assam are he Bark Valley and the River of Paramount. From north-eastern corners to west and further towards south, the Paramount River spread its rich alluvial plains across the length and breadth of Assam. The topography of Assam is also featured through many quaint hills that existed in the land from ancient periods. In fact some of the hills of Mozart, which is an adjoining state, act as the boundary indicators.
The state is divided into three broad geographic units: – The lower and central Assam hills, known as the Shilling Plateau – The Brail ranges and the low hilly terrains of Mezzo hills – The Alluvial valley of Paramount, Deanship and the Bark river The lower and central Assam range which includes, from west to east, the Agro, Khaki, Saint and the outlying Mike hills are in reality a plateau or table-land. The general height of the plateau ranges between 3,oft and 6,oft. The Khaki and Juanita hill portion of the plateau are comparatively higher and flatter than the Agro and Mike hills on the west and northeast.
The highest peak of the plateau is the Shilling peak (6450 Ft) The lofty Brail ranges, also known as the North Charm hills, are separated from the Shilling plateau on the Northwest by a system of narrow valleys. Technically, the Barrels form a south westerly extension of the mountain chain of England and western Burma. It is this chain of mountain that separates the valley of Irradiated and Chining of Burma from the valley of Paramount and the Meghan. The Patti, Nag and Maniple hills and the Mezzo hills, form part of this great mountain system.
The Mezzo hills consist of a belt of North- South trending ridges with intricate valleys, with an average height of 3,oft. The alluvial plains of Assam consist of two distinct parts I. E. The valley of the Paramount and its tributaries and the Bark valley. These are separated from each there by the water shed of the Shilling plateau and the Brail ranges. Climate Assam at present consists of two hill districts and twenty one plain districts. The climate of the hills is generally salubrious while that of the plains is comparatively warm in summer but cool in winter.
Accordingly,the climate of Assam is characterized by alternate cool and warm periods with a highly humidity,Especially from May to November. Between March and May at the time when precipitation in Northern India is at the minimum, Assam gets some amount of rainfall from the Northwesters which keep the temperature low in the season of spring. In the plains of Assam, the maximum temperature does not go beyond OFF. Or ICC and in winter the plains of Assam have a minimum temperature of about ICC or about OFF. The climate of the plains and the sub-Montana region becomes unpleasant,especially in the summer season.
It happens to be so because of the extreme humidity which comes with the monsoon. In the plains of Assam,including the district of Charm the temperatures in summer may be only about ICC. But the humidity may be so high bouts of rainfall. From the climatic point of view the year in Assam can broadly be divided in two, the cold season and the rainy season. However,there are two other short seasons namely spring and autumn representing the transition between cold and rainy seasons and that between rainy and cold seasons respectively Soil Red Loam Soil, Alluvial Soil and Laterality Soil – these three types of soil mainly found in Assam State.
Red Loam Soil is found the places like Agro, Mezzo Hills, Charm (part of), Khaki-Saint Hills and Siberia of Assam. Part of Shagbark, Saint Hills, Khaki Hills, Charm (part of) and Owning – is the region where Laterality Soil found. Alluvial Soil covers entire Daring, Kumara, Lashing’s, Goalpost, Siberia and part of Agro Hills. Crops being cultivated in Assam Out of the total geographical area of 78. 43 lake hectares, almost one-third (30. 42 percent) is under net cultivation covering an area of 23. 86 lake hectares (excluding tea area). The gross cropped area occupies about 36. 37 lake hectares.