Acid/Base Balance Worksheet

Exercise 10: Acid/Base Balance Worksheet

Respiratory Acidosis and Alkalosis

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Activity 1: Normal Breathing 1. At 20 seconds, pH = 7. 4 2. At 40 seconds, pH = 7. 4 3. At 60 seconds, pH = 7. 4 4. Did the pH level of the blood change at all during normal breathing? If so, how? No 5. Was the pH level always within the “normal” range for the human body? Yes 6. Did the PCO2 level change during the course of normal breathing? If so, how? No

Activity 2a: Hyperventilation – Run 1 1. At 20 seconds, pH = 7. 47 2. At 40 seconds, pH = 7. 52 3. At 60 seconds, pH = 7. 67 4. Maximum pH = 7. 68 5. Did the pH level of the blood change at all during this run?

If so, how? Yes, it increased and it did not remain completely steady. 6. Was the pH level always within the “normal” range for the human body? If not, when was the pH value outside of the normal range, and what acid/base imbalance did this pH value indicate? No, it increased to 7.68 which showed respiratory alkalosis. 7. Did the PCO2 level change during the curse of this run? If so, how? Yes, the minimum PCO2 decreased but the maximum stayed the same as the normal breathing exercise. 8. If you observed an acid/base imbalance during this run, how would you expect to renal system to compensate for this condition?

There would be an excretion of HCO-3 in the urine and causes an increase plasma pH. 9. How did the hyperventilation trace differ from the trace for the normal breathing? Did the tidal volumes change? Yes, they were not as steady and the lines went higher and lower than the normal breathing exercise. 10. What might cause a person to hyperventilate? Stress or Anxiety.

Activity 2b: Hyperventilation – Run 2 1. What happened to the trace after the 20-second mark when you stopped the hyperventilation? Did the breathing return to normal immediately? Explain your observation. No, it was almost as if the breathing completely stopped before becoming normal again.

Activity 3: Rebreathing

1. At 20 seconds, pH = 7. 37 2. At 40 seconds, pH = 7. 28 3. At 60 seconds, pH = 7. 27 4. Did the pH level of the blood change at all during this run? If so, how? Yes, it decreased with time. 5. Was the pH level always within the “normal” range for the human body? If not, when was the pH value outside of the normal range, and what acid/base imbalance did this pH value indicate? No, it went under the normal range of 7. 35 to 7. 24 which showed acidosis. 6. Did the PCO2 level change during the course of this run? If so, how?

Yes, the minimum was 40 and the maximum was 53. 02. 7. If you observed an acid/base imbalance during this run, how would you expect the renal system to compensate for this condition? There would be a secretion of H+ in the urine. 8. How did the rebreathing trace differ from the trace for normal breathing? Did the tidal volumes change? Yes, the tidal volumes increased as breathing continued where normal breathing, the volumes stayed consistent. 9. Give examples of respiratory problems that would result in pH and PCO2 patterns similar to what you observed during rebreathing? Asthma or airway obstruction. Renal System Compensation

Activity 4: Renal Response to Normal Acid/Base Balance

1. At normal PCO2 and pH levels, what level of H+ was present in the urine? Normal. 2. What level of [HCO3-] was present in the urine? Normal. 3. Why does the blood pH value change as PCO2 changes? Yes. 4. How does the blood pH value change as Pco2 changes? As PCO2 decreases blood pH increases.

Activity 5: Renal Response to Respiratory Alkalosis

1. What level of [H+] was present in the urine at each of these PCO2/pH levels? 35-normal. 30-decreased. And 20 decreased. 2. What level of [HCO3-] was present in the urine at each of these PCO2/pH levels? 35-normal, 30-elevated and 20-elevated. . Assuming that enough time has passed for the renal system to fully compensate for respiratory alkalosis, would you expect PCO2 levels to increase or decrease? Increase. 4. Would you expect blood pH levels to increase or decrease? Decrease. 5. Which type of breathing resulted in PCO2 levels closest to the ones we experimented with in this activity – normal breathing, hyperventilation, or rebreathing? Hyperventilation. 6. Explain why this type of breathing resulted in alkalosis. pH was outside the normal range.

Activity 6: Renal Response to Respiratory Acidosis

1. What level of [H+] was present in the urine at each of these PCO2/pH levels? Elevated 2. What level of [HCO3-] was present in the urine at each of these PCO2/pH levels? Decreased. 3. Assuming that enough time has passed for the renal system to fully compensate for respiratory acidosis, would you expect PCO2 levels to increase or decrease? Decrease. Would you expect blood pH levels to increase or decrease? Increase. 4. Which type of breathing resulted in PCO2 levels closest to the ones we experimented with in this activity – normal breathing, hyperventilation, or rebreathing? Rebreathing. 5. Explain why this type of breathing resulted in acidosis. It is caused by impaired respiration.

Metabolic Acidosis and Alkalosis

Activity 7: Respiratory Response to Normal metabolism

1. What is the respiratory rate? 15 2. What is the blood pH? 7. 38 3. Are the blood pH and PCO2 values within normal ranges? Yes

Activity 8: Respiratory Response to Increased Metabolism 1

. How did respiration change? BPM increased as well as the tidal volume. 2. How did blood pH change? It decreased. 3. How did PCO2 change? It increased. 4. How did [H+] change? It increased. 5. How did [HCO3-] change? It decreased. 6. Explain why these changes took place as metabolic rate increased? An increase causes carbon dioxide being formed as a waste product and could eventually cause acidosis. 7. Which metabolic rates caused pH levels to decrease to a condition of metabolic acidosis? Low plasma, HCO3-, and pH. 8. What were the pH values at each of these rates? 60- 7. 36, 70- 7. 28, and 80- 7. 25 9. By the time the respiratory system fully compensated for acidosis, how would you expect the pH values to change? pH would increase.

Activity 9: Respiratory Response to Decreased Metabolism

1. How did respiration change? It decreased. 2. How did blood pH change? It increased. 3. How did PCO2 change? It decreased. 4.How did [H+] change? It decreased. 5. How did [HCO3-] change? It increased. 6. Explain why these changes took place as metabolic rate decreased? It results in less carbon dioxide being formed as metabolic waste product. 7. Which metabolic rates caused pH levels to increase to a condition of metabolic alkalosis? Metabolic rates 70 and 80. 8. What were the pH values at each of these rates? 70- 7. 28 and 80- 7. 25 9. By the time the respiratory system fully compensated for alkalosis, how would you expect the pH values to change? Respiration decreases to promote accumulation of carbon dioxide in the blood. PhysioEx 8. 0 ISBN 0-321-54899-X

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