APA FORMAT Below is a brief guide to the features of APA format. For source types not listed here, consult a handbook such as Anne Raimes’ Keys For Writers, available in the Writing Center. Basic Features of APA: In the text of your paper Include the author, year, and page citation for each source At the end of your paper Include a list of all sources used in your paper Alphabetized by author’s last name Alphabetized by title if author is unknown Create list on a new page titled “References. In text citations, Print sources: Basic Format for a Quotation Critser (2003) noted that despite growing numbers of overweight Americans, many ealth care providers still “remain either in ignorance or outright denial about the health danger to the poor and the young” (p. 5). Despite growing numbers of overweight Americans, many health care providers still “remain either in ignorance or outright denial about the health danger to the poor and the young” (Critser, 2003, p. 5). Note: use page numbers ONLY for direct quotes. f you’re paraphrasing, sue Just the author and date. Sources with Two Authors According to Sothern and Gordon (2003), “Environmental factors may contribute as much as 80% to the causes of childhood obesity’ (p. 04). Obese children often engage in less physical activity (Sothern & Gordon, 2003, p. 104). Author Unknown Children struggling to control their weight must also struggle with the pressures of television advertising that, on the one hand, encourages the consumption of Junk food and, on the other, celebrates thin celebrities (“Television,” 2002).
You maybe use “ch” to reference a chapter in a long work such as a text book, or “par” to indicate paragraph in a work without page numbers. Personal Communication Cite personal communication such as an interview or e mail in your text like so: Smith, personal communication, 4 Sept. 2008). DO NOT list in your References page Works cited in another source: If you cite a work quoted by another source, you MUST cite where you found it, like so: Smith says that using APA format will make you smarter (cited in Jones, 2003).
In text citations, electronic formats Author Known Atkinson (2001) found that children who spent at least four hours a day watching TV were less likely to engage in adequate physical activity during the week. Author Unknown The bodys basal metabolic rate, or BMR, is a measure of its at rest energy requirement (“Exercise,” 2003). Date Unknown Attempts to establish a definitive link between television programming and children’s eating habits have been problematic (Magnus, n. d. ). Reference to an entire Web Site: If you reference an entire web site, give the compete URL in your in text citation.
DO NOT list it in the References page: Research on “The Mozart Effect” has generated an institute with a Web site providing links to research studies (http://www. mindinst. org). References page format List references on a separate page consecutively numbered use hanging indent (indent all but first line arrange alphabetically DO NOT list a reference to an entire web site or e mail communications, but cite them in the text. Books: Single Author Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Book title. Location: Publisher. Reagan, M. D. (1992).
Curing the crisis: Options for America’s health care. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Two Authors Cohen, L. G. , & Spenciner, L. J. (1994). Assessment of young children. White Plains, NY: Longman. Three to Six Authors Pratkanis, A. R. , Brecker, S. J. , & Greenwald, A. G. (1989). Attitude structure and function. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Note: If a book has more than six authors, after giving the sixth author’s name and nitial, use et al. (not italicized and with a period after “al”) to indicate the remaining authors of the book. Periodicals, General Format Author, A.
A. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of periodical, volume number, pages. Journal Articles (continuous pagination) Sayw’itz, K. J. , Mannarino, A. P. , Berliner, L. , & Cohen, J. A. (2000). Treatment for sexually abused children and adolescents. American Psychologist, 55, 1040-1049. Journal Article (issue by issue pagination) sexually abused children and adolescents. Psychology 55 (4), 1040-1049. Magazine Articles Henry, W. A. , Ill. (1990, April 9). Beyond the melting pot. Time, 135, 28-31. Newspaper Articles Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30).
Obesity affects economic, social status. The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4. Electronic Sources Article from a Database Author, A. A. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. Retrieved month date, year, from Database name. White, B. (2002, July 30). Stocks make more big gains. The Washington Post, pp. A1 . Retrieved August 1, 2002, from NewsBank database. Electronic Newspaper Article Hilts, P. J. (1999, February 16). In forecasting their emotions, most people flunk out. New York Times.
Retrieved November 21, 2000, from http://www. nytimes. com Online Document Author, A. A. (Date of publication). Title of article. Retrieved month date, year, from http://web address Document with Author and Date Murray, J. P. Children and television violence. (1995). Retrieved July 19, 2001, from http://www. ksu. edu/humec/kulaw. htm Document with No Author, No Date GVU’s 8th WWW user survey. (n. d. ). Retrieved August 8, 2000, from http:// www. cc. gatech. edu/gvu /user_surveys/survey-1997-10/ Begin with the title of the document if there is no author n. d. = no date