5 Critical Factors and Social Movements Study Guide BY asmith0929 Social movements in the United States Antiwar movement-against the Vietnam War Antipoverty movement Civil Rights movement-the fght for equal rights for all (Martin Luther King Jr) Women’s Rights movement These social movements wanted change from the old government policies and/or traditional patterns of behavior. Some social movements started to fght this change.
They wanted to keep tradition. They resisted change. Prayer in Public Schools movement Pro-life movement-antiabortion Antipornography Usually movements are either change oriented/liberal (top) or change resistant/ onservative (bottom); however, a movement is not always one or the other: Women’s Rights movement and Antislavery movement can be both of these. It really depends on how you look at them.
Two types of movements: Reform movement- changes a small aspect of society but doesn’t completely change everything like government or economy Civil Rights Movement- it wanted limited change; equal rights Revolutionary movement- participants want to completely change everything China Revolution- Communists transformed China’s economy by taking away property and giving it to the state (goVt) Usually accompanied by violence This violence can be called terrorism by the ruling power being threatened Guerrilla warfare-a war tactic where the fghters use the land and geography to their advantage.
They fight in small wars and move very quickly. Counterinsurgency techniques- how the ruling power responds to the movement, arrests, executions… Think of the techniques used by the Egyptian government Two types of Revolutions Left-wing revolution-goal is to change major social and political institutions. Oftentimes, redistribution of wealth-lessening the gap between rich and poor. Right- wing revolution-goal is to restore traditional institutions. Maintaining social order and traditional authority is more important than achieving social equality. *Revolutions can be both of the above Why do revolutions happen?
Five Critical Factors Mass frustration- A large percentage of the population becomes unhappy with the ruling power Dissident elite political movements- there is division among the elite powerful motivation that unites people from all classes (poor people unite with the rich over one issue) A severe political crisis paralyzing the capabilities of the government- a defeat in war, natural disaster, economic depression; anything that eakens the state in the eyes of the people A permissive or tolerant world context- the governments of other nations do not intervene to prevent a revolution Mass Frustration and Popular Uprising Everyone is upset Relative deprivation- people expect they should be able to live a certain way (comfortably with material pleasures) but are not capable of obtaining them. Example: a child who puts up a fuss and won’t eat his dinner because he/she wanted chicken nuggets and is served tuna casserole. The child’s feeling of being deprived is relative when you know that thousands of children around the world have nothing to eat at all. Also, there can be an increase in expectations that causes relative deprivation Example: a person learns about how other people live (foreigners) and wants to change their life to be more comfortable There can be a change in what people think is morally right. This happened in Latin America in the 70s and 80s.
M Many young men and women in the church began to think that the Church should help more in the lives of the poor Rather than Just focus on spiritual needs, they decided to expand to social Justice needs. This is called Liberation Theology There is a theory that states that revolutions happen after a period of economic mprovement followed by a sudden decline in living conditions (war, disaster) So the people were accustomed to a comfortable lifestyle then it was quickly taken away from them. Urban uprisings are caused by high unemployment and major increase in prices for basic foods In countries with strong governments and a lot of military, revolutions succeed first in the countryside.
Cities fall to the revolution after a long struggle Dissident Elite Political Movements Conflict among the elite groups causes confusion and disorganization Elites usually play a role in forming an ideology for the movement Ideology- a charge and critique f the current government, a set of Justifications for the revolution and a long range plan (strategy) Socialism-the public ownership of land and capital controlled for the community good- (Soviet Union) Capitalism- the private ownership of resources to produce products for profit- (USA) The primary function of revolutionary ideology is to provide as many people as possible with the same or at least compatible viewpoints on the need to change society so that they will be motivated to cooperate in the revolutionary struggle Unifying Motivations for Revolution What are the motivations that can unite everyone in a country? Nationalism- is a way of thinking that says that every ethnic group of humans should be free to rule itself. Nationalists think that the best way to make this happen is for every ethnic group to have its own nation or society that they can rule without being controlled or economic or political means to exert its influence over undeveloped nations or areas to gain control. Think: What relationship does the USA and Jordan have? National Liberation Movements- Revolutionary movements organized with the stated goal of overthrowing either direct colonial rule or neocolonial governments Examples:
Arab Revolt, Algeria, Tunis, Egypt If a ruler is particularly brutal, it is easier to unite people Sever State Crisis A revolutionary movement may not happen if the government maintains strong administrative capabilities and armed forces to scare the people Example: Turkey this year, Gezi park Decolonization-the withdrawal process when one country leaves a colony France leaving Lebanon/Syria Ottomans leaving Jordan The government that is left may have people who worked for the previous regime Many citizens may not trust the leaders because they feel they are Just like the old nes A postcolonial government lacks the support and loyalty of its people. This leaves the government very vulnerable to a revolutionary movement Economically less developed states may make changes to compete in a global market. As the government tries to reform, people may revolt to these new policies (salaries being cut, land being taken away) and a revolution can happen Permissive World Context US involvement in Vietnam is an example; Soviet Union in Afghanistan Sometimes countries choose not to intervene; like today with Syria Reasons not to intervene Fear of disapproval
Economic sanctions Military attack from nations that support a given movement Concern of provoking the people of the revolution THEORIES OF REVOLUTION Marxist theory Revolution is likely to occur when existing social and political structures and leadership interfere with economic development. As technology advances, conflict arises with the new urban working class (the proletariat) and the ruling capitalist class. To Marx, the importance of labor was more important than private ownership Systems theory Revolution is more likely to occur when prerevolutionary social structures fail to erform essential functions (necessary economic and governments tasks) Similar to Marxist theory in that it associates revolution with technological and economic change However, this theory says that with the technological and economic change, new groups of people who were uninvolved in the past will become empowered and mobilized.
Revolution will happen when the government cannot meet the demands of the newly mobilized people Structural theory Many structural theories include the factors such as the situation of the peasantry, the strength (or lack of) the economy, foreign affairs, the unemployment rate and trong opposition – capitalism versus socialism. These are all different concepts which must be taken into account when considering what a structural theory actually is. They are, however, usually composed of peasant rebellions which have become extremely defensive in order to protect the traditional lifestyles against increasing strains, which include the increase in population; “commercialization and market growth”; and the “dislocation among the elites that traditionally mediate peasants’ interactions with government authorities and the outside world”.