International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology (IJAET)
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ISSN: 2231-1963
Please note that authors are exclusively responsible for the contents of their submissions. Each author is kindly asked to ensure that the submitted paper respects the ethical standards concerning plagiarism. All received papers are thoroughly checked for plagiarism. During the editorial process the submitted manuscripts are also examined using plagiarism detection software. Any paper proved as plagiarism (by either peer reviewers or staff editors, before or after acceptance, during editing, or at any time before publication) will be rejected and its authors will be informed and banned from publishing in the IJAET. If plagiarism is detected after publication, the editors will notify readers of the infraction through an editors note in the journal, and the authors employer may be notified of the breach.
Please avoid self-plagiarism: if the submitted paper is based on an authors own previously copyrighted work (i.e. conference proceedings), proper reference should be given for the original text.
Manuscript writing in for international journals is filled with rules that Author often don??™t know how to follow. A working knowledge of these rules, however, is critically important; inadvertent mistakes can lead to charges of plagiarism or the unacknowledged use of somebody else??™s words or ideas. A charge of plagiarism can have severe consequences, including black-listing from the journal. This article, which mainly reflects IJAET policy, is designed to help Authors to develop strategies for knowing how to avoid accidental plagiarism. The heart of avoiding plagiarism is to make sure you give credit where it is due. This may be credit for something somebody said, wrote, emailed, drew, or implied.
Types of Plagiarism
Without citing source
The Ghost Writer: The writer turns in another??™s work, word-for-word, as his or her own.
The Photocopy: The writer copies significant portions of text straight from a single source, without alteration.
The Potluck Paper: The writer tries to disguise plagiarism by copying from several different sources, tweaking the sentences to make them fit together while retaining most of the original phrasing.
The Poor Disguise: Although the writer has retained the essential content of the source, he or she has altered the paper??™s appearance slightly by changing key words and phrases.
The Labor of Laziness: The writer takes the time to paraphrase most of the paper from other sources and make it all fit together, instead of spending the same effort on original work.
The Self-Stealer: The writer ???borrows??? generously from his or her previous work, violating policies concerning the expectation of originality adopted by most academic institutions.
Sources Cited but still plagiarized!
The Forgotten Footnote: The writer mentions an author??™s name for a source, but neglects to include specific information on the location of the material referenced. This often masks other forms of plagiarism by obscuring source locations.
The Misinformer: The writer provides inaccurate information regarding the sources, making it impossible to find them.
The Too-Perfect Paraphrase: The writer properly cites a source, but neglects to put in quotation marks text that has been copied word-for-word, or close to it. Although attributing the basic ideas to the source, the writer is falsely claiming original presentation and interpretation of the information.
The Resourceful Citer: The writer properly cites all sources, paraphrasing and using quotations appropriately. The catch The paper contains almost no original work! It is sometimes difficult to spot this form of plagiarism because it looks like any other well-researched document.
The Perfect Crime: Well, we all know it doesn??™t exist. In this case, the writer properly quotes and cites sources in some places, but goes on to paraphrase other arguments from those sources without citation. This way, the writer tries to pass off the paraphrased material as his or her own analysis of the cited material.
Deciding when to Give Credit
Need to Document
* When you are using or referring to somebody else??™s words or ideas from a magazine, book, newspaper, song, TV program, movie, Web page, computer program, letter, advertisement, or any other medium
* When you use information gained through interviewing another person
* When you copy the exact words or a “unique phrase” from somewhere
* When you reprint any diagrams, illustrations, charts, and pictures
* When you use ideas that others have given you in conversations or over email
No Need to Document
* When you are writing your own experiences, your own observations, your own insights, your own thoughts, your own conclusions about a subject
* When you are using common knowledge like folklore, common sense observations, shared information within your field of study or cultural group
* When you are compiling generally accepted facts
* When you are writing up your own experimental results?
Making Sure You Are Safe
When researching, note-taking, and interviewing
* Mark everything that is someone else??™s words with a big Q (for quote) or with big quotation marks.
* Indicate in your notes which ideas are taken from sources (S) and which are your own insights.
* Record all of the relevant documentation information in your notes.
* Proofread and check with your notes (or photocopies of sources) to make sure that anything taken from your notes is acknowledged in some combination of the ways listed below:
* In-text citation
* Quotation marks
* Indirect quotations
When paraphrasing and summarizing
* First, write your paraphrase and summary without looking at the original text, so you rely only on your memory.
* Next, check your version with the original for content, accuracy, and mistakenly borrowed phrases.
* Begin your summary with a statement giving credit to the source: According to Rajan et.al.l, …
* Put any unique words or phrases that you cannot change, or do not want to change, in quotation marks: … ???Fast, fair and constructive peer review” exist throughout our journal management system (IJAET).
When quoting directly
* Keep the person??™s name near the quote in your notes, and in your paper,select those direct quotes that make the most impact in your paper — too many direct quotes may lessen your credibility and interfere with your style.
* Mention the person??™s name either at the beginning of the quote, in the middle, or at the end.
* Put quotation marks around the text that you are quoting.
* Indicate added phrases in brackets ([ ]) and omitted text with ellipses (. . .).
When quoting indirectly
* Keep the person??™s name near the text in your notes, and in your paper.
* Rewrite the key ideas using different words and sentence structures than the original text.
* Mention the person??™s name either at the beginning of the information, or in the middle, or at that end.
* Double check to make sure that your words and sentence structures are different than the original text.
Deciding if something is “Common Knowledge”
Material is probably common knowledge if . . .
* You find the same information undocumented in at least five other sources.
* You think it is information that your readers will already know.
* You think a person could easily find the information with general reference sources.