Aviation

May 31, 2017/ Free Online/ 0 comments

Chapter 2 – Signals, Signs and Pavement Markings

PA Driver??™s Manual

CHAPTER 2:
SIGNALS, SIGNS AND PAVEMENT MARKINGS
This chapter provides the information you need to know about Pennsylvania roadways. It covers:
??? Signals
??? Signs
??? Pavement Markings

SIGNALS
Traffic signals are installed at intersections to control the movement of vehicles and
pedestrians. Traffic signals are arranged in either vertical lines or horizontal lines.
When they are arranged vertically, red is always on top and green on the bottom.
When they are arranged horizontally, red is always on the left and green on the right.

RED, YELLOW AND GREEN TRAFFIC LIGHTS AND ARROWS
When there is a STEADY RED LIGHT, you must stop before crossing the marked stop line or
crosswalk. If you do not see any lines, stop before entering the intersection. Wait for a green light
before you start.
You may turn right while the light is red, unless a NO TURN ON RED sign is posted at the intersection.
You must first stop, check for and yield to pedestrians and other traffic.
You may also turn left after you stop at a red light, if you are in the left lane and are turning left from a
one-way street onto another one-way street, unless a sign tells you not to turn. You must first stop and
yield to pedestrians and other traffic.
A STEADY YELLOW LIGHT tells you a steady red light will soon appear. If you are driving toward an
intersection and a yellow light appears, slow down and prepare to stop. If you are within the
intersection or cannot stop safely before entering the intersection, continue through carefully.
A STEADY GREEN LIGHT means you may drive through the intersection, if the road is clear. You may
also turn right or left unless a sign tells you not to; however, when turning, you must yield to other
vehicles and pedestrians within the intersection.

A GREEN ARROW means you may turn the way the arrow points. When you turn during the green
arrow phase, your turn is ???protected??? because oncoming traffic is stopped by a red light. If the green
arrow turns into a green light, you may still turn in that direction, but first yield to pedestrians and
oncoming traffic.

A YELLOW ARROW means the movement permitted by the green arrow is about to end. You should
slow down and prepare to stop completely before entering the intersection. If you are within the
intersection or cannot stop safely before entering the intersection, carefully turn in the direction
the arrow is pointing.

Although not common in Pennsylvania, a RED ARROW is used in other states. It means you may not
turn in the direction the arrow points.

-7-

Chapter 2 – Signals, Signs and Pavement Markings

PA Driver??™s Manual

FLASHING SIGNALS
A flashing yellow light means CAUTION.
Slow down, look and proceed with care.

A flashing red light has the same
meaning as a STOP sign. You must
come to a complete stop. Then, look
both ways, and proceed only after the
intersection is clear.

NON-FUNCTIONING TRAFFIC LIGHTS
A non-functioning traffic signal should be treated as though it were a four-way STOP sign.

RAMP-METERING SIGNALS
Some highway entrance ramps have traffic signals at the end of the ramp that alternate between steady green
and steady red. Ramp metering signals are used to control the flow of traffic onto very congested highways and
usually operate during peak rush hours. You must wait for the green signal before you enter the highway.
On single-lane ramps, only one (1) car may enter the highway each time the light turns green. For multi-lane on
ramps, there will be a ramp meter for each lane. The green light does not protect your entrance onto the
highway ??” you must still look for a safe gap in traffic to enter the highway.

LANE USE CONTROL SIGNALS

Special signals may also be placed directly over lanes to control traffic. These are commonly used at toll booths,
on bridges, tunnels and on multi-lane roads in cities where the direction of travel for a particular lane changes to
ease the flow of traffic into or out of the city during peak rush hour. The following signals show how specific lanes
of a street or highway should be used:

X
X

A steady downward green arrow over a traffic lane means you may use the lane.

A steady yellow ???X??? over a traffic lane means you must change lanes because the direction of travel
for that lane is about to be reversed. Get ready to leave the lane safely.

A steady red ???X??? over a lane means you are not allowed to use the traffic lane.

A white, steady, one-way left-turn arrow over a lane means you may only turn left, if you are
in that lane.

A white, steady, two-way left-turn arrow over a lane means you may only turn left, if you are in
that lane, but the lane is shared by left-turning drivers approaching from the opposite direction.

-8-

Chapter 2 – Signals, Signs and Pavement Markings

PA Driver??™s Manual

PEDESTRIAN SIGNALS
Pedestrians must obey traffic and pedestrian signals. The pedestrian signals you must obey are the WALK and
DON??™T WALK lights or the lighted picture of a walking person (meaning walk) and an upraised hand (meaning don??™t
walk). If there are no pedestrian signals at the intersection, pedestrians must obey the red, yellow and green traffic
lights.
Sometimes pedestrians are not aware of their responsibilities at traffic and pedestrian signals. Be alert for
pedestrians, who may not obey the signal. Always yield to pedestrians.
When a steady
WALK or walking
person comes on,
start crossing, but be
alert for turning
vehicles that may not
lawfully yield the right
of way.

When the flashing
DON??™T WALK or
flashing upraised
hand begins:
a. Finish crossing,
if you are in the
street.

When the steady
DON??™T WALK
message or steady
upraised hand is
displayed, do not
cross.

b. Do not start to
cross, if you have
not left the curb.

Blind Pedestrians
When driving near a blind pedestrian who is carrying a white cane or walking with a guide dog, you must slow
down, always yield the right-of-way and then proceed with caution. Be prepared to stop your vehicle in order to
prevent injury or danger to the pedestrian.

SCHOOL ZONE SIGNALS
School zone signals are flashing yellow signals placed on the school zone speed limit signs. You must
travel no faster than 15 mph when the yellow signals are flashing or during the time periods indicated
on the sign. Exceeding the speed limit in a school zone will result in three (3) points on your driving
record, and you will also be fined.

RAILROAD CROSSING SIGNALS
Drivers are alerted when approaching a railroad crossing by the railroad crossing sign. Railroad
crossings should be approached with caution at all times. You should always look both ways and
listen for any approaching trains or signals before proceeding across the railroad tracks.
You are required to stop at all railroad crossings when there is a signal of an approaching train.
These signals include flashing red lights, a lowered crossing gate, a flagger signaling or a train??™s
audible signal of warning. Do not move forward or attempt to go around any gate or ignore any
signal of an approaching train. If there are no signals at the railroad crossing, you should slow
down and prepare to stop, if you see or hear a train approaching.
Proceed with caution only after all signals are completed and then only when there is evidence
no trains are approaching the crossing.
You should stop if a train is approaching and has sounded its audible signal or is plainly visible and
in hazardous proximity to the crossing.
Do not stop your vehicle on a railroad track, regardless of whether a train appears to be coming. If traffic
is backed up because of a traffic signal, stop sign or for any other reason, make sure you stop your vehicle
in a location where it will be entirely clear of any railroad tracks.
Refer to Chapter 3 for more information about how to safely cross
a highway-railroad intersection.
-9-

OBEY RAILROAD CROSSING
SIGNS AND SIGNALS

Chapter 2 – Signals, Signs and Pavement Markings

PA Driver??™s Manual

SIGNS
Signs are divided into three (3) basic categories: Regulatory, Warning and Guide signs. Most signs within each
category have a special shape and color.

REGULATORY SIGNS
Regulatory signs tell you what you must do, or must not do, according to the law. The regulations posted on these
signs advise you about speed limits, the direction of traffic, turning restrictions, parking restrictions, etc. If you do
not obey the messages on regulatory signs, you could be fined and receive points on your driving record because
you are breaking the law. You also risk your safety and the safety of others by disobeying the messages on
regulatory signs ??“ for example, failing to stop at a stop sign, passing another car where it is not safe to pass, driving
faster than the posted speed limit or driving the wrong way on a one-way street.
Usually, regulatory signs are black and white vertical rectangles or squares, like SPEED LIMIT signs. Some
regulatory signs are black, white and red, like the NO LEFT TURN sign with a circle and slash. Other regulatory
signs are red and white, like STOP, YIELD, DO NOT ENTER and WRONG WAY signs.
The STOP sign is the only octagon-shaped (8-sided) sign you see on the highway. At an
intersection with a STOP sign, you must stop completely, check for pedestrians and cross traffic
to clear the intersection before you go again. Slowing down without coming to a full stop is illegal.
When you see a crosswalk or a stop line, stop before the front of your vehicle reaches the first
painted line. If you cannot see traffic, yield to any pedestrians and then carefully pull forward past
the line until you can see clearly. Check for traffic and pedestrians and then go ahead when the
intersection is clear.
EXCEPT
RIGHT
TURN

This sign is also used in conjunction with stop signs. This sign allows motorists to make the right turn
without stopping.
A FOUR-WAY STOP sign means there are four stop signs at this intersection. Traffic from all four
directions must stop. The first vehicle to reach the intersection should move forward first. If two
vehicles reach the intersection at the same time, the driver on the left yields to the driver on the
right. If facing one another both can proceed with caution, watching for possible turns.

4-WAY

YIELD signs are triangular (3-sided) in shape. When you see this sign, you must slow down and
check for traffic and give the right-of-way to pedestrians and approaching cross traffic. You stop
only when it is necessary. Proceed when you can do so safely without interfering with normal
traffic flow. Remember, you must have a sufficient gap in traffic before you can continue on at
either STOP or YIELD sign locations.
TO
ONCOMING

This sign is used in conjunction with a yield sign at a one-lane bridge or underpass location to alert
motorists the one-lane roadway requires them to yield the right-of-way to opposing traffic.

TRAFFIC

RAILROAD CROSSBUCK SIGN. This sign is placed at a railroad crossing where the tracks cross
the roadway. You should treat the crossbuck sign as a YIELD sign; slow down and prepare to stop,
if you see or hear a train approaching. Refer to Chapter 3 for more information about railroad
crossing safety.

– 10 –

Chapter 2 – Signals, Signs and Pavement Markings

PA Driver??™s Manual

The DO NOT ENTER and WRONG WAY signs work as a team. The DO NOT
ENTER sign is put at the beginning of one-way streets and ramps. When you
see this sign, do not drive onto that street or ramp in the direction you are
heading.
WRONG WAY signs are placed farther down the one-way street or ramp. They are
placed there to catch your attention, if you accidentally turn onto the street or ramp.
The ONE WAY sign means traffic is allowed to move only in the direction the sign is pointing.
If you turn onto a one-way street traveling in the opposite direction, you are likely to get into
a head-on collision.
DIVIDED
HIGHWAY

NO TRUCKS

DIVIDED HIGHWAY
This sign means the road you are on intersects with a divided highway. The divided
highway is really two (2), one-way roadways that are separated by a median or a guide rail.
At the first roadway, you can only turn right, and at the second roadway, you can only
turn left.

NO BICYCLES

NO PEDESTRIAN
CROSSING

NO TRUCKS, NO BICYCLES and
NO PEDESTRIAN CROSSING
Operators of trucks, bicycles and pedestrians
may not use roadways where
these signs are posted.

The following signs are located where certain actions are prohibited at any or all times:

NO U-TURN

NO RIGHT TURN

NO LEFT TURN

This sign prohibits
U-turns. Do not make a
complete turn to go in
the opposite direction.

This sign indicates right
turns are prohibited. Do
not make a right turn at
this intersection.

This sign indicates left
turns are prohibited. Do
not make a left turn
at this intersection.

DO
NOT
PASS

NO PARKING
You may not park a
vehicle at locations
where this sign is
posted.

DO NOT PASS
This sign may be placed in areas where you may not pass any vehicles going in the same direction.
It is often accompanied by the yellow pennant-shaped sign that says NO PASSING ZONE (Refer to
???Warning Signs???).

The following LANE USE CONTROL SIGNS (Directional) are placed at or near intersections above the traffic lane
they control to show what maneuver(s) are permitted from that lane.
This sign indicates that at the
intersection ahead traffic in the left lane
must turn left and traffic in the adjoining
lane may turn left or continue straight.

– 11 –

CENTER LANE LEFT TURN ONLY
This sign indicates where a lane
is reserved for the exclusive use
of left-turning vehicles in either
direction and is not to be used for
through traffic or passing.

Chapter 2 – Signals, Signs and Pavement Markings

PA Driver??™s Manual

LANE USE CONTROL SIGNS (continued)

TURN TO
LEFT OR RIGHT

STRAIGHT OR
TURN RIGHT

TURN RIGHT
ONLY

If you are in a lane controlled by signs like these,
you may travel in either direction the arrows point.

TURN LEFT
ONLY

If you are in a lane controlled by a sign with a turn
arrow and the word ???ONLY,??? when you reach the
intersection, you must make the turn. You may travel
only in the direction the arrow points, even if you are
in the turn-only lane in error.

KEEP RIGHT
These signs direct drivers to keep to the right of the traffic island or divider.

A SPEED LIMIT sign indicates the maximum legal
speed under ideal conditions for the stretch of
highway where it is posted. Your safety may depend
upon driving slower than the posted speed under
poor conditions.

TEEN CRASH?FACT
???Driving too fast for conditions??? is
the No. 1 reason 16 and 17-year-old
drivers are involved in crashes.

You may not turn during the red light cycle at an intersection
where one of these signs is posted. You must wait for the
signal to turn green.

LEFT TURN

YIELD
ON GREEN

LEFT TURN YIELD ON?GREEN
This sign indicates a left turn is permitted,
but you must yield to oncoming traffic. It is
commonly placed at intersections, near the
left-turn traffic signal, to remind drivers left
turns are not protected when the circular
green signal comes on.

OPPOSING
TRAFFIC HAS
EXTENDED
GREEN

OPPOSING?TRAFFIC?
HAS?EXTENDED?GREEN
This sign is posted where
opposing traffic may continue
to move after your signal has
turned red.

RESERVED PARKING
Although this sign is not black and white, it is a regulatory sign. It marks areas where parking
is reserved for disabled persons or severely disabled veterans. Vehicles parked in these spaces
must display authorized registration plates or parking placards. Unauthorized vehicles parked
in these spaces are subject to a fine and towing costs.

– 12 –

Chapter 2 – Signals, Signs and Pavement Markings

PA Driver??™s Manual

WARNING SIGNS

Warning signs tell you about conditions on or near the road ahead. They warn you about possible hazards or
changes in roadway conditions. They are posted before the condition, so you have time to see what is ahead,
decide how you should respond and slow down or change your travel path, if necessary. Warning signs are usually
diamond shaped with black symbols or words on a yellow background.
NO PASSING ZONE
This is the only pennant-shaped warning sign. This sign marks the beginning of a no
passing zone and is placed on the left side of the road facing the driver.

CHEVRON SIGNS
There is a sharp change in the direction of the road, such as a curve to the left or
right. The road bends in the direction the chevron points. When used in a curve,
there will be an advanced curve warning sign, and there may be several chevron
signs placed throughout the curve.
LEFT CURVE
The road curves ahead to the left.
You need to slow down, stay in
the center of your lane and
prepare to navigate through the
left-bending curve.

RIGHT CURVE
The road curves ahead to the
right. You need to slow down
and position your vehicle slightly
to the right of the center of your
lane, as you drive through the
right-bending curve.

SHARP LEFT TURN
The road ahead turns sharply to
the left. You need to slow down
substantially, stay in the center of
your lane and prepare to navigate
through the sharp left turn. Some
sharp turn signs have an advisory
speed located on the sign or
posted below it.

SHARP RIGHT TURN
The road ahead turns sharply
to the right. You need to slow
down substantially, position
your vehicle slightly to the
right of the center of your lane
and prepare to navigate
through the sharp right turn.
Some sharp turn signs have
an advisory speed located on
the sign or posted below it.

SET OF CURVES
The road ahead curves first in one direction and then back in the other
direction (a set of two (2) curves). Slow down and prepare to navigate
through the set of curves.

RIGHT AND LEFT SHARP TURNS
The road ahead turns sharply first in one direction and then back in
the other direction. Slow down substantially and prepare to navigate
through the set of turns.

– 13 –

Chapter 2 – Signals, Signs and Pavement Markings

PA Driver??™s Manual

WINDING ROAD (SERIES OF CURVES)
This sign indicates there are three (3) or more curves in a row on the road ahead.

ONE DIRECTION LARGE ARROW
The road ahead changes direction at an extreme angle. Before you reach such an extreme
curve, slow down as much as you would to make a turn at an intersection.
ROAD ENTERING CURVE
The main road curves to the left with a side road entering from the right. Approach the
intersection with extra caution. A driver preparing to enter the main road may not be able to
see you approaching from around the curve and may pull out in front of you, leaving you little
room to avoid a crash, if you are traveling too fast.

TRUCK ROLLOVER
This sign identifies curves where trucks traveling at excessive speeds have a potential
to rollover.

ADVISORY SPEED SIGNS
This sign may be used with any diamond-shaped warning sign. The highest speed you should
travel around a sharp left curve ahead is 25 mph.

MERGING TRAFFIC
This sign is placed on a major roadway to tell you traffic may be merging into your lane from
another roadway or a ramp. In this example, the traffic will be entering your lane from the right.
Entering traffic must yield to traffic already on the major roadway.

ADDED LANE
This sign is placed in advance of a point where two roadways meet. It means merging is not
necessary because the entering traffic uses a new lane that has been added to the roadway.

– 14 –

Chapter 2 – Signals, Signs and Pavement Markings

PA Driver??™s Manual

DIVIDED HIGHWAY BEGINS
The highway ahead becomes a
divided highway with two oneway roadways and a median or
divider separating traffic moving in
opposite directions. Keep to the
right of the divider or median.

DIVIDED HIGHWAY ENDS
The divided highway on which you
are traveling ends ahead. You will
then be on a roadway with twoway traffic. Keep to the right of the
centerline and watch for oncoming
traffic.

TWO-WAY TRAFFIC AHEAD
The one-way street or roadway ends ahead. You will then be traveling on a road with two (2)
lanes of traffic moving in opposite directions. Stay in your lane to the right of the centerline.
This sign may also be placed at intervals along the two-way roadway.

LANE ENDS
These signs tell you one (1) lane on a multi-lane
roadway will end ahead. In these examples, the traffic
in the right lane must merge left.

LANE ENDS

MERGE
LEFT

INTERSECTION?SIGNS
The signs below show types of intersections. By showing you in advance how the roads join each other, the signs
let you know when the road you are traveling on does not continue straight through the intersection. The signs also
warn you about possible problems with the movements of other vehicles. Approach all of these intersection types
with extra caution by searching ahead and preparing to slow down, if necessary.

CROSS ROAD

SIDE ROAD

???T???
INTERSECTION

???Y???
INTERSECTION

CIRCULAR
INTERSECTION

TWO DIRECTION LARGE ARROW
This sign is placed at the far side of a T-intersection to tell you that you can only go left
or right. The road you are on does not continue straight through at the intersection.
NARROW BRIDGE OR UNDERPASS AHEAD
Each lane on the bridge or underpass becomes narrower, and there generally is no shoulder.
You need to slow down and make sure you stay in your lane. If a driver approaching from the
opposite direction has a wide vehicle or is taking up part of your lane, wait until he or she
clears the area.
SLIPPERY WHEN WET
Especially slippery conditions exist when wet. In wet weather, reduce your speed and increase
your following distance. Do not accelerate or brake quickly. Make turns at a very slow speed.

– 15 –

Chapter 2 – Signals, Signs and Pavement Markings

PA Driver??™s Manual

DEER CROSSING
This sign is posted in areas where deer frequently cross and crashes with deer have occurred.

LOW CLEARANCE
This sign may be placed on an underpass, or at the entrance to a tunnel or parking garage.
Do not enter if your vehicle is taller than the height listed on the sign.

SHOULDER SIGNS
These signs are placed in advance of locations where
the shoulder is lower than the road or the shoulder is
soft (not paved). The LOW SHOULDER sign is used
where the shoulder is as much as three (3) inches
below the level of the road. The SHOULDER DROP
OFF sign is used for even more severe drop-off
situations.
If you stray off of the roadway and one (1) wheel
drops off onto a low shoulder or a soft shoulder, do not slam on the brakes or steer sharply to try to get
back onto the roadway??”you can easily lose control of your vehicle! Refer to Chapter 3 for information about
how to safely recover from drifting off of the pavement.
HILL/DOWNGRADE
There is a steep hill ahead. Slow down and be ready to shift to a lower gear to control your
speed and to save wear and tear on your brakes.

TRAFFIC SIGNAL AHEAD
A traffic signal is present at the
intersection ahead. You may not be
able to see it because of a curve or
hill. If the light is red (or if the light
has just turned green), a line of
vehicles may be stopped ahead.
When you see this sign, slow down
and prepare to stop, if necessary.

STOP SIGN AHEAD
A STOP sign is present at the
intersection ahead. You may not be
able to see it because of a curve, hill
or something else blocking your
view. There also may be a line of
vehicles stopped ahead at the
STOP sign you cannot see. When
you see this sign, slow down in
preparation to stop.

BICYCLE CROSSING AHEAD
Bicyclists may be crossing your
path ahead. Be prepared to slow
down, if necessary. This sign may
have either a yellow background
(as shown) or a fluorescent yellowgreen background.

RAILROAD CROSSING AHEAD
You are approaching a railroad
crossing. When you see this sign,
begin looking and listening for a train.
This sign is placed far enough in
advance to allow you to stop before
you reach the tracks, if necessary.
Refer to Chapter 3 for more
information about railroad crossing
safety.

– 16 –

Chapter 2 – Signals, Signs and Pavement Markings

PA Driver??™s Manual

ADVANCED INTERSECTION/RAILROAD CROSSING SIGN
The intersecting road has a railroad crossing within a very short distance from the
intersection. If you are planning to turn onto the intersecting road and if a train is approaching,
be prepared to stop.

SHARE

BICYCLE/MOTOR VEHICLE SHARE THE ROAD
Used at roadway pinch points (no shoulder, narrow lanes, etc.) to warn you, as a motorist,
to provide adequate space for bicyclists to share the roadway.

THE
ROAD

PEDESTRIAN CROSSING
Used at a marked crosswalk or in advance of locations where pedestrians may be crossing
your path. Be prepared to slow down or stop, if necessary. This sign may have either a yellow
background (as shown) or a fluorescent yellow-green background.

SCHOOL
This is the only pentagon-shaped sign used on the roadway. It means you are approaching a
school zone. If the sign is accompanied by a downward-pointing arrow, it means you are at
the school zone crosswalk. You should slow down, watch for children crossing the road and
stop, if necessary. This sign may have either a yellow background (as shown) or a fluorescent
yellow-green background.
HORSE-DRAWN VEHICLE
This sign is posted in areas where slow moving, horse-drawn vehicles cross or share the
roadway with motorized vehicles.

OBJECTS ADJACENT TO THE ROADWAY
Objects close to the edge of the road sometimes need a marker to warn drivers of the potential danger. These
include underpass supports, ends of bridges, guiderails and other structures. In some cases, there may not be a
physical object involved, but rather a roadside condition such as a drop-off or an abrupt change in the roadway
alignment. Such roadside objects and conditions are indicated by the following markers, where the stripes are
angled down in the direction you need to move to avoid the hazard:

Right Hazard
Keep to the Left

Center Hazard
Keep to the Left or Right
– 17 –

Left Hazard
Keep to the Right

Chapter 2 – Signals, Signs and Pavement Markings

PA Driver??™s Manual

WORK ZONE SIGNS (WORK AREA AND CONSTRUCTION ZONE SIGNS)
Work Zone Signs are normally diamond shaped, like warning signs, but they are orange with black lettering instead
of yellow with black lettering. These signs identify maintenance, construction or utility areas where workers or
equipment may be on or near the roadway. Stay alert and slow down when you see
these signs.
Turn on your headlights when traveling through a work zone, no matter what time
of day. This is the law for all posted work zones, not just for active ones. Using your
headlights makes your vehicle more visible to other traffic as well as to highway
workers. If you are pulled over by police for a traffic violation in a work zone and your
vehicle??™s headlights are not turned on, you will be fined an additional $25.

ACTIVE
WORK ZONE
WHEN
FLASHING
INCREASED PENALTIES

ROAD
WORK
AHEAD

END
ACTIVE
WORK
ZONE

These WORK ZONE signs are placed at the beginning and end of an
active work zone. An active work zone is the portion of a work zone where
construction, maintenance or utility workers are on the roadway, or on
the shoulder of the highway next to an open travel lane.

ROAD WORK AHEAD
This sign informs you there is road
work ahead and also cautions you
to slow down.

WORKERS AHEAD
Workers may be on or are very
close to the roadway, so take
special care when traveling
through the area.

LANE CLOSED AHEAD
This sign tells you a particular lane will be closed at a specified distance ahead.
RIGHT LANE
RIGHT LANE
CLOSED
CLOSED
1000 FT
1000 FT

FLAGGER AHEAD (ROAD CONSTRUCTION AHEAD)
The sign to the left shows a flagger is controlling traffic ahead.
As shown below, flaggers use STOP and SLOW paddles or a
red flag to signal you to stop or slow down. Pay special attention
to flaggers when approaching and traveling through a work zone.

TRAFFIC
MUST
STOP
AND
WAIT

TRAFFIC
MUST
MOVE
SLOWLY

– 18 –

DID YOU KNOW
Highway workers
have forms to report
motorists who speed
or drive unsafely
in work zones
to the police, who
may then issue a
ticket, resulting in
fines and points.

Chapter 2 – Signals, Signs and Pavement Markings

PA Driver??™s Manual

ELECTRIC ARROW PANELS
Large electronic flashing arrow panels (move/merge right or left) placed in the roadway or mounted on vehicles
advise approaching motorists of lane closures. Begin your merge well in advance of the sign. An arrow panel
displaying either of the messages shown in the figure to the far right (caution) indicates there is a work area ahead
next to the travel lane. Drive with extra caution.
MOVE/MERGE RIGHT

CAUTION

MOVE/MERGE LEFT

CHANNELING DEVICES
Barrels, tubes, cones and vertical panels are all
devices used in work zones to guide you through
changing traffic patterns and keep you away from
hazards associated with road work.

GUIDE SIGNS

Guide signs provide information about intersecting roads, help direct you to cities and towns, and show points of
interest along the highway. Guide signs also help you find hospitals, service stations, restaurants and motels.
Usually these signs are horizontal rectangles.
HIGHWAY/EXPRESSWAY GUIDE SIGNS
The following three signs are examples of highway and expressway guide signs. They are green with white letters.
Most highway and expressway signs are posted the same way. For example, there is usually one advance sign
which is followed by another advance sign. The third sign then is posted at the exit. Several signs are necessary
because the high speed and heavy traffic on highways can cause drivers to miss seeing a single sign. Also,
motorists may need to make one or more lane changes to exit.
EXITS 30 E-W

EXITS 30 E-W

22

22

Colonial Park
Progress
2 MILES

Colonial Park
Progress
1 MILE

EXIT 30 E

22 EAST

Colonial Park

EXIT NUMBERS
Exit numbers have been revised to correspond with the mile markers similar to states to the west and south of
Pennsylvania. This change allows motorists to quickly calculate distances between exits, e.g., the distance
between Exit 95 and Exit 20 is 75 miles.
EXIT 30-W

If a yellow panel with the message EXIT ONLY is on a
highway sign, the lane below the sign will not continue
through the interchange; instead, the lane will go off of
the road to form a ramp. If you are in a lane posted with
an EXIT ONLY, you may change lanes, or you must exit
the highway if you stay in this lane.
– 19 –

22 WEST

Progress
1 MILE
EXIT

ONLY

EXIT 30 W
22 WEST

Progress

EXIT ONLY

Chapter 2 – Signals, Signs and Pavement Markings

PA Driver??™s Manual

HERE ARE SOME TIPS TO LET YOU KNOW WHICH SIDE OF THE HIGHWAY YOU WILL EXIT:
EXIT 7
EXIT 13
WEST

22

80

Trenton
1 MILE

Exit 13 for Route 22 will be
on the left side of the highway.

80

22

Bowie
Exit 7 for Route 22
will be on the right
side of the highway.

??? The small green EXIT number sign on top of the green
rectangular sign will be on the left side of the sign, if
the exit is on the left side of the highway.
??? The small green EXIT number sign on top of the green
rectangular sign will be on the right side of the sign,
if the exit is on the right side of the highway.
??? If the sign has white arrows, the arrow will point in the
direction of the exit.

INTERSTATE NUMBERING SYSTEM
The red, white and blue shield sign indicates a highway is an interstate. These interstates are
specially numbered to help motorists find their way through unfamiliar areas. A code is used to
show if the route travels mainly east and west or north and south, and to show if the route is in
the eastern, middle or western United States.

Decoding the Interstate Numbering System. The numbers on the interstate shield can be a great
navigational aid when you understand how they are developed. They generally follow this pattern:
??? One or two-digit, even-numbered interstates are generally east-west routes. Nationally, the numbers increase
from I-10 in the south to I-94 in the north. In Pennsylvania, I-76 is in the southern part of the state, and I-84 and
I-80 are in the northern part.
??? One or two-digit, odd-numbered interstates are generally north-south routes. Numbers increase from the
west coast I-5 to the east coast I-95. In Pennsylvania, I-79 is in the western part of the state, and I-95 is in
the eastern part.
??? Three-digit numbered interstate highways connect to other major highways. If the first of the three (3) digits is an
even number, the highway usually connects to interstate highways at both ends, such as I-276 in Philadelphia.
Many times such routes are known as ???loops??? or ???beltways.???
??? When the first of the three (3) digits is an odd number, the highway is usually a ???spur??? route connecting with
another interstate at only one (1) end, sometimes going into a city center such as I-180 in Williamsport.

1
9112
1490
16

MILE MARKERS
Mile markers are used on some highways to indicate the number of miles from the point
where the traffic route entered the state or from its beginning, if it does not extend to the
state borders. The numbers start at zero in the western part of the state for east-west
roadways and in the southern part of the state for north-south roadways. The numbers
increase as you travel east or north and decrease as you travel west or south. For
example, when you enter Pennsylvania from the west on Interstate I-80, the mile
markers begin at Mile 1 and increase as you travel east. Knowing how to read mile
markers can help you to know exactly where you are and give an approximate location,
if you have to call for roadside assistance.

– 20 –

Chapter 2 – Signals, Signs and Pavement Markings

PA Driver??™s Manual

ROUTE MARKERS
The following signs indicate the route on which you are traveling.
The route marker shows you
the road is U.S. Traffic Route 22.

22

39

The junction plate on this route marker
shows you are approaching the
intersection of U.S. Traffic Route 22.

22
WEST

22

WEST

The supplemental arrow on this route
marker assembly means you are
approaching a right turn to continue
on U.S. Traffic Route 22 West.

JCT

TO

22
22

The keystone marker shows you the
road is Pennsylvania Traffic Route 39.

The direction plate on this route
marker shows you are traveling west
on U.S. Traffic Route 22.

The route marker sign and ???TO???
trailblazer sign and the supplemental
arrow means if you want to gain access
to U.S. Traffic Route 22, you must
continue ahead.

SERVICE SIGNS
The following signs are examples of service signs. The signs are square or rectangular, are blue with white
letters or symbols, and show the location of various services located at the next exit.

D
HOSPITAL

TELEPHONE

FOOD

GAS

DIESEL

LODGING

TOURIST-ORIENTED DIRECTIONAL SIGNS

3

Susquehanna
Indian Museum

GETTYSBURG
NATIONAL MILITARY PARK
2 MILES

– 21 –

These signs are square or rectangular
and may be blue or brown with white
lettering. The signs direct motorists to
tourist attractions such as museums,
historical landmarks, or state or national
parks.

Chapter 2 – Signals, Signs and Pavement Markings

PA Driver??™s Manual

PAVEMENT MARKINGS

Most roads have permanent markings to show the center of the road, travel lanes or road edges. The markings that
show the center of the road are solid or broken lines. These pavement markings also indicate special lane use. Yellow
lines divide traffic traveling in opposite directions. Yellow lines are used to mark the center of two-lane roads, and to
mark the left edge of divided highways, one-way streets and ramps. Solid white lines divide lanes of traffic traveling
in the same direction. Solid white lines are also used to mark the right edge of the road.

M
M

A double, solid yellow centerline shows the center of a twoway road. Even if it is not marked with a NO PASSING sign,
passing by traffic traveling in either direction is not allowed on
roads marked in this manner.
The combination of a solid yellow and a broken yellow
centerline also shows the center of a two-way roadway. You
may pass if the broken line is on your side of the road and
safe conditions exist, but you may not pass when a solid
yellow line is on your side of the road.

M

A single, broken yellow centerline shows the center of a
two-way, two-lane road. Passing is permitted on either side,
if safe conditions exist. When passing, you must use the lane
belonging to oncoming traffic.

M

As a general rule, broken traffic lines can be crossed and solid lines cannot, except when making a turn.
Some examples of different pavement markings and their meanings follow:

M
M
M
M

TURNING LANE ONLY

MM

MM
MM
MM

Marking patterns like these may be found on many
three-Iane or five-lane highways. The outside, solid yellow
centerline means you cannot use the center lane for
passing. The inside, broken yellow and solid yellow
centerlines show vehicles traveling in either direction may
use the center lane only to make left turns. Refer to Chapter
3 for more information about using center turn lanes safely.
Multi-lane highways without medians (center dividers) are
often marked as shown. Broken white lines show which lanes
can be used by vehicles traveling the same way. You may
cross the broken white lines to pass, (be sure the passing lane
is clear) but you may not cross the double yellow centerlines
to pass. Traffic is traveling in the opposite direction in the lane
to the left of the yellow centerline.
This pattern is used on most limited access highways with
medians (center dividers). The right edge of the road is
marked with a solid white line. The left edge of each side
is marked by a solid yellow line. The traffic lanes for each side
are marked by broken white lines, which may be crossed.

Pavement markings also include words painted on the pavement and arrows that supplement messages posted on
regulatory and warning signs. Examples include the words STOP AHEAD before an intersection with a STOP sign,
YIELD or white triangles painted across the lane to indicate you must yield to approaching traffic, SCHOOL before a
school zone, R X R before a railroad crossing, BIKE LANE for a lane reserved for bicyclists, ONLY with a left or right
arrow to indicate the lane is reserved for turns only and large white arrows to indicate the direction of travel on oneway streets and highway off-ramps.

– 22 –

Chapter 2 – Signals, Signs and Pavement Markings

PA Driver??™s Manual

CHAPTER 2 REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. WHEN YOU SEE THIS SIGN, YOU MUST:
A. Stop completely, check for pedestrians, and cross traffic
B. Slow down without coming to a complete stop
C. Stop completely and wait for a green light
D. Slow down and check for traffic
2. THIS IS THE SHAPE AND COLOR OF A __________ SIGN.
A. Stop
B. Wrong Way
C. Yield
D. Do not enter
3. THIS SIGN MEANS:
A. Stop
B. No U-Turn
C. Yield
D. Do not enter
4. THIS SIGN MEANS:
A. No U-Turn
B. No Turning
C. No left turn
D. No right turn
5. THIS SIGN MEANS:
A. No U-Turn
B. No left turn
C. No right turn
D. No turning
6. THIS SIGN MEANS:
A. You must turn left or right
B. You are approaching a T-intersection
C. The road that you are on intersects with a divided highway
D. Designates an overpass above a divided highway
7. YOU NEED TO USE EXTRA CAUTION WHEN DRIVING NEAR A PEDESTRIAN
USING A WHITE CANE BECAUSE:
A. He or she is deaf
B. He or she has a mental disability
C. He or she is blind
D. He or she has a walking problem
8. WHEN DRIVING NEAR A BLIND PEDESTRIAN WHO IS CARRYING A WHITE CANE
OR USING A GUIDE DOG, YOU SHOULD:
A. Slow down and be prepared to stop
B. Take the right-of-way
C. Proceed normally
D. Drive away quickly

– 23 –

DIVIDED
HIGHWAY

Chapter 2 – Signals, Signs and Pavement Markings
9. IF THERE ARE NO SIGNALS AT A RAILROAD CROSSING, YOU SHOULD:
A. Slow down and prepare to stop if you see or hear a train approaching
B. Proceed as quickly as possible over the tracks
C. Proceed through the crossing at a normal rate
D. Proceed slowly over the tracks
10. YOU MAY DRIVE AROUND THE GATES AT A RAILROAD CROSSING:
A. When the train has passed
B. Never
C. When the lights have stopped flashing
D. When other drivers drive around the gates
11. IF YOU SEE THIS SIGN ABOVE YOUR LANE, YOU:
A. May not exit the freeway in this lane
B. May continue through the interchange or exit the freeway in this lane
C. May stay in this lane and continue through the interchange
D. Must exit the freeway if you stay in this lane
12. HIGHWAY AND EXPRESSWAY GUIDE SIGNS ARE:
A. Orange with black letters
B. Green with white letters
C. Yellow with black letters
D. Red with white letters
13. THIS SIGN IS USED TO WARN DRIVERS ABOUT:
A. Upcoming intersections
B. Road construction
C. Road curves ahead
D. Changes in traffic lanes
14. THIS SIGN TELLS YOU THAT:
A. No turns are allowed on this road
B. The road narrows ahead
C. There are a series of curves ahead
D. The road may be slippery when wet
15. THIS SIGN MEANS:
A. Left curve ahead
B. Series of curves
C. S curved ahead
D. Slippery when wet
16. THIS SIGN INDICATES THAT:
A. There is a steep hill ahead
B. No trucks are allowed on the hill
C. A logging road is ahead
D. There are trucks on the hill
17. A YELLOW AND BLACK DIAMOND-SHAPED SIGN:
A. Warns you about conditions on or near the road
B. Helps direct you to cities and towns ahead
C. Tells you about traffic laws and regulations
D. Tells you about road construction ahead

– 24 –

PA Driver??™s Manual

Chapter 2 – Signals, Signs and Pavement Markings

PA Driver??™s Manual

18. THE SIGN WITH THIS SHAPE AND COLOR IS A _____________ SIGN.
A. No passing zone
B. Wrong way
C. Railroad crossing
D. Stop
19. WHICH OF THESE SIGNS IS USED TO SHOW THE END OF A DIVIDED HIGHWAY
A. 2
1
2
3
LANE ENDS
B. 4
MERGE
C. 3
LEFT
D. 1
20. THIS SIGN IS USED TO WARN DRIVERS ABOUT:
A. Lane ends, merge left
B. Road curves ahead
C. Upcoming intersections
D. Road construction
21. THIS SIGN SHOWS ONE TYPE OF:
A. Intersection
B. Road curve
C. Right turn
D. Lane change
22. THIS SIGN SHOWS ONE TYPE OF:
A. Right turn
B. Intersection
C. Lane change
D. Road curve
23. WHAT SHOULD YOU BE MOST CONCERNED ABOUT WHEN YOU SEE THIS SIGN
A. Driving with your headlights out of alignment because one side of your car
is higher than the other
B. Damaging a tire, if you drift onto the shoulder
C. Hydroplaning, if the shoulder has water on it
D. Losing control of your vehicle, if you drift onto the shoulder, because of a drop off
24. WHAT
A.
B.
C.
D.

IS THE MEANING OF THIS SIGN
The traffic signal ahead is red
The traffic signal ahead is broken
The traffic signal ahead is green
There is a traffic signal ahead

25. THIS SIGN MEANS:
A. Divided highway ends
B. One-way street begins
C. One-way street ends
D. Divided highway begins
26. FROM TOP TO BOTTOM, THE FOLLOWING IS THE PROPER ORDER FOR TRAFFIC LIGHTS:
A. Red, yellow, green
B. Red, green, yellow
C. Green, red, yellow
D. Green, yellow, red
– 25 –

4

Chapter 2 – Signals, Signs and Pavement Markings
27. IF A GREEN ARROW TURNS INTO A GREEN LIGHT, YOU:
A. May still turn but you must yield to oncoming traffic
B. May no longer turn and must proceed straight
C. Still have the right of way to turn
D. No longer have to turn the way the arrow indicates
28. A STEADY YELLOW LIGHT AT AN INTERSECTION MEANS:
A. Go
B. Yield to other cars
C. Slow down and prepare to stop
D. Stop
29. A FLASHING YELLOW LIGHT MEANS THAT YOU SHOULD:
A. Slow down and proceed with care
B. Continue through if the way is clear
C. Stop and proceed when a green light appears
D. Stop and proceed when the way is clear
30. YOU MUST STOP WHEN YOU SEE A:
A. Flashing red light
B. Steady yellow light
C. Yellow arrow
D. Flashing yellow light
31. A STEADY GREEN LIGHT AT AN INTERSECTION MEANS THAT YOU:
A. Must slow down and prepare to stop
B. Must stop and check for oncoming traffic before proceeding
C. May drive through the intersection if the road is clear
D. May not turn right
32. A STEADY YELLOW LIGHT MEANS THAT A _______ LIGHT WILL SOON APPEAR.
A. Flashing yellow
B. Steady green
C. Steady red
D. Flashing red
33. YOU MAY CONTINUE CAREFULLY THROUGH A YELLOW LIGHT IF:
A. There is an emergency vehicle crossing your lane
B. There are no pedestrians crossing
C. You are turning right
D. You are within the intersection
34. YOU MAY TURN LEFT AT A RED LIGHT IF:
A. There is no traffic coming in the opposite direction
B. You are turning from a two-way street onto a one-way street
C. You are turning from a one-way street onto another one-way street
D. The car in front of you turns left
35. IF A TRAFFIC LIGHT IS BROKEN OR NOT FUNCTIONING YOU SHOULD:
A Stop and wait for it to be repaired
B Stop and wait for a police officer to arrive
C. Continue as if it were a four-way stop sign
D. Continue as you normally would

– 26 –

PA Driver??™s Manual

Chapter 2 – Signals, Signs and Pavement Markings

PA Driver??™s Manual

36. YOU MAY TURN RIGHT ON RED IF YOU:
A. Stop first and check for traffic and pedestrians
B. Have a right turn red arrow
C. Are in the left lane
D. Slow down first
37. WHEN
A.
B.
C.
D.

MAKING A RIGHT TURN ON A GREEN LIGHT, YOU MUST:
Maintain normal driving speed
Stop and look for oncoming traffic
Yield to pedestrians
Increase your normal driving speed

38. THE SPEED LIMIT IS _______ MILES PER HOUR WHEN THE YELLOW LIGHTS ARE FLASHING
ON THE SCHOOL ZONE SPEED SIGN.
A. 25
B. 15
C. 20
D. 35
39. A FLASHING RED LIGHT AT A RAILROAD CROSSING MEANS:
A. Stop, do not proceed until signals are completed
B. Slow down and proceed if clear
C. Proceed with caution
D. You have the right-of-way

40. THIS GREEN ARROW ON A LANE USE CONTROL SIGNAL MEANS THAT:
A. You may use this lane
B. No traffic is allowed in this lane
C. You have the right-of-way
D. You must merge into this lane
41. THIS SIGN MEANS:
A. Pedestrians ahead
B. End of construction zone
C. School crossing ahead
D. Flagger ahead
42. THIS SIGN MEANS THAT:
A. A community service group is picking up trash along the highway ahead
B. Workers are on or very close to the road in the work zone ahead
C. Children are at play ahead
D. There is a pedestrian crosswalk ahead
43. WHEN AN ARROW PANEL IN A WORK ZONE SHOWS EITHER OF
THE FOLLOWING PATTERNS, IT MEANS:
A. The bulbs on the sign are burned out
B. Drive with caution
C. Changes lanes immediately
D. Tune your radio to a station that gives traffic updates
44. THE CENTER LANE IN THE ILLUSTRATION IS USED FOR:
A. Regular travel
B. Left turns only
C. Passing only
D. Emergency vehicles only
– 27 –

ROAD
WORK
AHEAD

Chapter 2 – Signals, Signs and Pavement Markings

PA Driver??™s Manual

45. YOU MAY PASS IF THE LINE DIVIDING TWO LANES IS A ___________ LINE.
A. Broken white
B. Double solid yellow
C. Solid yellow
D. Solid white
46. LANES OF TRAFFIC MOVING IN THE SAME DIRECTION ARE DIVIDED BY ____ LINES.
A. Yellow
B. White
C. Red
D. Black
47. YOU MAY NOT PASS ANOTHER CAR ON EITHER SIDE OF A _______ CENTERLINE.
A. Combination solid and broken yellow
B. Single broken yellow
C. Double solid yellow
D. Single broken white
48. YOU MAY CROSS SOLID YELLOW LINES:
A. To pass traffic moving in the same direction
B. During daylight hours only
C. At any time
D. When making turns
49. THE ROAD EDGE ON THE RIGHT SIDE IS MARKED BY A ___________ LINE.
A. Broken white
B. Solid yellow
C. Solid white
D. Broken yellow audio
50. LANES OF TRAFFIC MOVING IN THE OPPOSITE DIRECTION ARE DIVIDED BY ____ LINES.
A. White
B. Red
C. Black
D. Yellow
51. WHEN YOU SEE THIS BLACK AND YELLOW SIGN, IT MEANS:
A. The road to the right is for one-way traffic only
B. Detour to the right because of road construction
C. Slow down because the road ahead changes direction at an extreme angle
D. There is a cross road ahead on your right
52. WHEN YOU SEE THIS SIGN, IT MEANS:
A. There is an object on the roadway
B. Traffic is coming from the right
C. The road is curving sharply to the left
D. There is a merge point ahead
53. AT AN INTERSECTION CONTROLLED BY A STOP SIGN, IF YOU CAN??™T GET A GOOD VIEW OF
CROSS-STREET TRAFFIC WHEN YOU STOP BEHIND THE WHITE STOP BAR PAINTED ON THE
PAVEMENT, YOU SHOULD:
A. Wait 5 seconds, then proceed.
B. Sound your horn before proceeding
C. Put down your windows, listen for traffic, and then proceed
D. Pull forward slowly, check for traffic and pedestrians, and proceed when clear
– 28 –

Chapter 2 – Signals, Signs and Pavement Markings

PA Driver??™s Manual

54. THE POSTED SPEED LIMITS SHOW:
A. The minimum legal speed limit
B. The exact speed at which you must travel to avoid a ticket
C. The maximum safe speed under ideal road and weather conditions
D. The maximum safe speed under all road conditions
55. A HIGHWAY WITH TWO-WAY TRAFFIC IS MARKED BY WHICH OF THESE SIGNS
A. 1
1
2
3
LANE ENDS
B. 2
MERGE
C. 3
LEFT
D. 4
56. FROM
A.
B.
C.
D.

4

THE CENTER LANE, WHAT MANEUVERS CAN YOU PERFORM
Make left turns
Make U-turns
Pass slower-moving traffic
All of the above

57. WHICH OF THESE SIGNS MEANS THAT DRIVERS SHOULD KEEP TO THE RIGHT
A. 2
1
2
3
B. 1
C. 3
D. 4

– 29 –

4

Chapter 2 – Signals, Signs and Pavement Markings

PA Driver??™s Manual

CHAPTER 2 ANSWER KEY

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

A
C
D
A
C
C
C
A
A
B
D
B
C
C
D
A
A
A
A

20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.

39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.

A
A
B
D
D
D
A
A
C
A
A
C
C
D
C
C
A
C
B

– 30 –

A
A
D
B
B
B
A
B
C
D
C
D
C
C
D
C
C
A
A

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <s> <strike> <strong>
*
*